OBJECTIVES To clarify the role of infarct and non-infarct sites on left ventricular (LV) remodelling after myocardial infarction by measuring brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) from each site. METHODS AND RESULTS BNP from the aorta and the anterior interventricular vein (AIV) was measured in 45 patients with first anterior myocardial infarction at one, six, and 18 months. The LV was significantly dilated (> 10 ml/m(2) of end diastolic volume from one to 18 months) in 20 patients (remodelling (R) group) but not in 25 others (non-remodelling (NR) group). Patient characteristics and LV functions did not differ significantly at one month but plasma BNP concentration was higher in group R than in group NR (336 (288) v 116 (106) pg/ml, p < 0.01), predicting the degree of LV dilatation. The difference in BNP concentration between the aortic root and AIV (DeltaBNP), reflecting BNP secreted from the infarct site, did not differ at one month. In both groups BNP and DeltaBNP significantly decreased from one to six months (p < 0.05) and decreased from six months to 18 months, but the change was not significant. BNP and DeltaBNP were significantly higher in group R than in group NR after six months, when LV dilatation was not evident in both groups. CONCLUSION Enhanced BNP secretion at one month in the non-infarct and infarct ventricular sites predicts subsequent LV dilatation (that is, remodelling). The slower process of LV remodelling decreased BNP secretion at both sites. Thus, BNP concentration should be useful for monitoring ventricular remodelling after infarction.