Sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific Ocean: an ongoing legacy of industrial whaling?

@article{Springer2003SequentialMC,
  title={Sequential megafaunal collapse in the North Pacific Ocean: an ongoing legacy of industrial whaling?},
  author={Alan M. Springer and James A. Estes and Guy van Vliet and Terrie M. Williams and Daniel F Doak and Eric M. Danner and Karin A. Forney and Bruno Pfister},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={2003},
  volume={100 21},
  pages={12223-8}
}
Populations of seals, sea lions, and sea otters have sequentially collapsed over large areas of the northern North Pacific Ocean and southern Bering Sea during the last several decades. A bottom-up nutritional limitation mechanism induced by physical oceanographic change or competition with fisheries was long thought to be largely responsible for these declines. The current weight of evidence is more consistent with top-down forcing. Increased predation by killer whales probably drove the sea… CONTINUE READING
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