Sequential fragmentation: the origin of columnar quasihexagonal patterns.

@article{Jagla2002SequentialFT,
  title={Sequential fragmentation: the origin of columnar quasihexagonal patterns.},
  author={Eduardo A. Jagla and Alberto G. Rojo},
  journal={Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics},
  year={2002},
  volume={65 2 Pt 2},
  pages={
          026203
        }
}
  • E. Jagla, A. Rojo
  • Published 17 March 2000
  • Geology, Medicine, Mathematics, Physics
  • Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics
We present a model that explains the origin and predicts the statistical properties of columnar quasihexagonal crack patterns, as observed in the columnar jointing of basaltic lava flows. Induced by temperature gradients during cooling, irregular fractures appear at the surface of the material. At later times fractures penetrate into the material, and tend to form polygonal patterns. We show that this ordering can be described as a tendency to minimize an energy functional. Atomistic… Expand

Topics from this paper

Nonequilibrium scale selection mechanism for columnar jointing
TLDR
Measurements of the crack spacing from both laboratory and geological investigations of columnar jointing are presented, and it is shown how these data can be collapsed onto a single master scaling curve. Expand
Why Hexagonal Basalt Columns?
TLDR
Two periodically repeatable models are presented here involving linear elastic fracture mechanics and applying the principle of maximum energy release rate to describe the evolution of the crack pattern as a transition from rectangular start configuration to the hexagonal pattern. Expand
Scale selection in columnar jointing: Insights from experiments on cooling stearic acid and numerical simulations
Many natural fracture systems are characterized by a single length scale, which is the distance between neighboring fractures. Examples are mud cracks and columnar jointing. In columnar jointing theExpand
Analysis of columnar joint patterns from three‐dimensional stress modeling
[1] We consider a crack pattern penetrating into a solid material, forming a columnar structure as observed in basalts, tuffs, and also in starches. Using the finite element method, we calculate theExpand
A MODEL OF COLUMNAR JOINTING
We propose to use nonlinear elasticity to model the propagation of cracks in cooling lava. In particular, our work aims to understand the enigmatic fracture process that leads to the formation ofExpand
Scale selection in columnar joints
Crack patterns in laboratory experiments on thick samples of drying cornstarch are geometrically similar to columnar joints in cooling lava found at geological sites such as the Giant’s Causeway. WeExpand
Diameter of basalt columns derived from fracture mechanics bifurcation analysis.
TLDR
The diameter of columnar joints forming in cooling basalt and drying starch increases with decreasing growth rate and can be reproduced with a linear-elastic three-dimensional fracture mechanics bifurcation analysis, which agrees fairly well with observed column diameters. Expand
Hierarchical crack pattern as formed by successive domain divisions. II. From disordered to deterministic behavior.
TLDR
It is shown that the experimental results can be directly inferred from the equations of linear elasticity, and the existence of a transition from disordered cracks at large scales to a deterministic behavior at small scales--the last cracks is discussed. Expand
FEM-bifurcation analysis for 3D crack patterns
Abstract During the shrinkage of volcanic rock, columnar joints evolve with an almost regular hexagonal pattern formation and a very distinct column diameter defining the crack spacing. ThisExpand
Experimental investigation of the scaling of columnar joints.
TLDR
It is argued that there exists a range of stable column scales allowed for any particular evaporation rate, and that the column area at a particular depth is related to both the current conditions, and hysteretically to the geometry of the pattern at previous depths. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 19 REFERENCES
Evoluton of Polygonal Fracture Patterns in Lava Flows
TLDR
Field data indicate that the tetragonal networks at flow surfaces evolve systematically to hexagonal networks as the joints grow inward during solidification of lava. Expand
Fracture patterns induced by desiccation in a thin layer.
  • S. Kitsunezaki
  • Materials Science, Medicine
  • Physical review. E, Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics
  • 1999
TLDR
An analytical method of estimation for the growth velocity of a simple straight crack to explain the very slow propagation observed in actual experiments and the dependence of qualitative nature of the formation of crack patterns on material properties is revealed. Expand
Modelling the evolution of columnar joints
Abstract Cooling cracks, developing from the margins of solidifying lava flows or intrusive dykes or sills, often propagate inward and divide the rock into prismatic columns. It has been shown that:Expand
Phase transition in a spring-block model of surface fracture
A simple and robust spring-block model obeying threshold dynamics is introduced to study surface fracture of an overlayer subject to stress induced by adhesion to a substrate. We find a novel phaseExpand
Cyclic fracture mechanisms in cooling basalt
Striae on the fracture surface of columnar joints in basalt may be rationalized in the light of experimental fracture mechanics. Morphologic similarity between experimentally produced and naturalExpand
Contraction Crack Networks in Basalt Flows
The traditional concept of contraction crack formation is based on a model having a regular arrangement of stress centres. A more realistic result is produced if the model consists of a close randomExpand
Development and geometry of isotropic and directional shrinkage-crack patterns.
TLDR
There is some evidence of a gradual increase in disorder as the drying layer become thinner, but no sudden transition, in contrast to what has been seen in previous experiments. Expand
Surface morphology of columnar joints and its significance to mechanics and direction of joint growth
Columnar joints in basaltic lava flows display conspicuous bands oriented normal to column axes. New observations show that each band contains a single plumose structure and thus represents anExpand
Models for Material Failure and Deformation
  • P. Meakin
  • Computer Science, Medicine
  • Science
  • 1991
TLDR
The present algorithms are adequate for some purposes, but substantial improvements are needed if simulation results are to make a major contribution to theoretical understanding of the asymptotic fractal scaling and universality properties of patterns generated by failure and deformation phenomena. Expand
An Experimental Study of Cracking Induced by Desiccation
Experiments on cracking in drying a coffee-water mixture were carried out, in order to model mud cracks occurring in nature. The results show that the main source of stresses required for cracking isExpand
...
1
2
...