Sequential delivery of immunomodulatory cytokines to facilitate the M1-to-M2 transition of macrophages and enhance vascularization of bone scaffolds.

@article{Spiller2015SequentialDO,
  title={Sequential delivery of immunomodulatory cytokines to facilitate the M1-to-M2 transition of macrophages and enhance vascularization of bone scaffolds.},
  author={Kara L Spiller and S. Nassiri and Claire E Witherel and Rachel R Anfang and Johnathan J Ng and Kenneth R Nakazawa and Tony S Yu and Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic},
  journal={Biomaterials},
  year={2015},
  volume={37},
  pages={194-207}
}
In normal tissue repair, macrophages exhibit a pro-inflammatory phenotype (M1) at early stages and a pro-healing phenotype (M2) at later stages. We have previously shown that M1 macrophages initiate angiogenesis while M2 macrophages promote vessel maturation. Therefore, we reasoned that scaffolds that promote sequential M1 and M2 polarization of infiltrating macrophages should result in enhanced angiogenesis and healing. To this end, we first analyzed the in vitro kinetics of macrophage… CONTINUE READING

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