Patient characteristics and outcomes in metastatic upper tract urothelial carcinoma after radical nephroureterectomy: the experience of Japanese multi-institutions.
Retrospective evaluation of the effectiveness and adverse events (AEs) of a sequential chemotherapy regimen using gemcitabine + carboplatin (GCarbo) followed by GCarbo + docetaxel (GCarboD) for advanced upper-tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). We treated 56 patients with advanced UTUC. Mean patient age was 68.9 years, creatinine clearance was 51.2 mL/min, and the observation period was 20 months. Patients received two courses of GCarbo comprising 800 mg/m2 gemcitabine on days 1, 8, and 15, and carboplatin at an area under the curve of four on day 2. If this regimen was effective, we administered two more courses of GCarbo; if the regimen was ineffective, we switched to two courses of GCarboD (70 mg/m2). Complete (n = 3) and partial response (PR; n = 25) were achieved after GCarbo. Mean response duration was 9.7 months. Two of 17 cases achieved PR after GCarboD treatment (mean duration, 31.5 months). Median survival was 14.0 months with the GCarbo/GCarboD regimen. Responders to GCarbo therapy survived significantly longer. AEs with the GCarbo regimen included 31 instances of G3/4 blood toxicity and 8 instances of G3/4 urticaria; however, there were only 6 instances of G3/4 gastrointestinal complications. AEs with the GCarboD regimen included 16 instances of blood toxicity and 8 instances of gastrointestinal complications. Neither regimen resulted in G3/4 renal toxicity. GCarbo and GCarboD chemotherapy may be administered safely to patients with advanced UTUC, with or without renal dysfunction. Response to GCarbo was high (50.0 %) whereas GCarboD was of limited effectiveness for non-responders to GCarbo.