Sequence parameters of double spin-echo sequences affect quantification of citrate.


Quantification of citrate by localized 1H spectroscopy is usually performed using the water signal as reference, but the signal behavior of the J-coupled AB spin system of citrate after multipulse excitation is not as trivial as for uncoupled substances. The influence of the timing scheme of double spin-echo sequences and of the spatial flip angle distribution of (nonideal) refocusing pulses was analyzed systematically for the citrate resonances. Both single echo times of the double spin-echo sequence were varied between 20 ms and 250 ms in theoretical and experimental approaches. Relatively long total echo times (TE > 120 ms) provide high selectivity to citrate signals, since signals from triglycerides at 2.6 ppm are markedly reduced. Asymmetrical timing schemes of the double spin-echo sequence with one short single echo time of 20 ms and one longer single echo time of about 120 ms result in high integral signal from the central lines of citrate, whereas symmetrical timing leads to high sensitivity for total echo times TE near 100 ms. The integral citrate signals in spectra with relatively long echo times (TE > 120 ms) were found to depend markedly on the type of the refocusing pulses, affecting quantitative citrate measurements in vitro and in vivo.

Cite this paper

@article{Schick1996SequencePO, title={Sequence parameters of double spin-echo sequences affect quantification of citrate.}, author={Fritz Schick and Klaus Straubinger and J{\"{u}rgen Machann and Thomas N{\"a}gele and Maike Bunse and Uwe Klose and Otto Hans-Martin Lutz}, journal={Magnetic resonance imaging}, year={1996}, volume={14 6}, pages={663-72} }