Identification of novel polymorphisms and two distinct haplotype structures in dog leukocyte antigen class I genes: DLA-88, DLA-12 and DLA-64
We have sequenced a segment of 150,102 nucleotides of canine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) DNA, corresponding to the junction of the class I and class III regions. The distal portion contained five class III genes including two tumor necrosis factor genes and the proximal portion contained five genes or pseudogenes belonging to the class I region. The order of the class III region genes was conserved as in the porcine and human MHC regions. The order of the class Ib loci from the proximal side outwards was DLA-53, DLA-12a, DLA-64, stress-induced phosphoprotein-1, followed by DLA-12. Only DLA-64 and DLA-12 display an overall predicted protein sequence compatible with the expression of membrane-anchored glycoproteins. The other class 1b loci do not appear to be functional by sequence analysis. In all, these 10 genes spanned 24% of the total sequence. The remaining 76% comprised of a number of non-coding and repetitive DNA elements including long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) fragments, short interspersed nuclear elements (SINE), and microsatellites.