Separating Family-Level and Direct Exposure Effects of Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring Externalizing Symptoms: Bridging the Behavior Genetic and Behavior Teratologic Divide.

@article{Estabrook2016SeparatingFA,
  title={Separating Family-Level and Direct Exposure Effects of Smoking During Pregnancy on Offspring Externalizing Symptoms: Bridging the Behavior Genetic and Behavior Teratologic Divide.},
  author={Ryne Estabrook and Suena H. Massey and Caron A. C. Clark and James L Burns and Brian S. Mustanski and Edwin H. Cook and Trudy O'Brien and Beth Makowski and Kimberly Andrews Espy and Lauren Wakschlag},
  journal={Behavior genetics},
  year={2016},
  volume={46 3},
  pages={389-402}
}
Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) has been robustly associated with externalizing problems and their developmental precursors in offspring in studies using behavioral teratologic designs (Wakschlag et al., Am J Public Health 92(6):966-974, 2002; Espy et al., Dev Psychol 47(1):153-169, 2011). In contrast, the use of behavior genetic approaches has shown that the effects commonly attributed to MSDP can be explained by family-level variables (D'Onofrio et al., Dev Psychopathol 20(01):139… CONTINUE READING
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