Separated Powers in the United States: The Ideology of Agencies, Presidents, and Congress

@article{Clinton2012SeparatedPI,
  title={Separated Powers in the United States: The Ideology of Agencies, Presidents, and Congress},
  author={Joshua D. Clinton and Anthony M. Bertelli and Christian R. Grose and David E. Lewis and David Nixon},
  journal={American Journal of Political Science},
  year={2012},
  volume={56},
  pages={341-354}
}
Government agencies service interest groups, advocate policies, provide advice to elected officials, and create and implement public policy. Scholars have advanced theories to explain the role of agencies in American politics but efforts to test these theories are hampered by the inability to systematically measure agency preferences. We present a method for measuring agency ideology that yields ideal point estimates of individual bureaucrats and agencies that are directly comparable with those… 

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