Separate, but Not Equal: Racial Segmentation in Cigarette Advertising

  title={Separate, but Not Equal: Racial Segmentation in Cigarette Advertising},
  author={Richard W. Pollay and Jung S. Lee and David Carter-Whitney M.B.A.},
  journal={Journal of Advertising},
Abstract The ethnic segmentation of the cigarette market is currently controversial, but not a new phenomenon. A census of 540 cigarette ads from 1950–1965 Ebony magazines, compared to a matched sample from Life, reveals segmented and segregated advertising toward black consumers. The ads in Ebony eventually featured black models almost exclusively, primarily professional athletes. Despite endorsements from black athletes and musicians also famous to white audiences, none of these appeared in… 

Black and White Models and Their Activities in Modern Cigarette and Alcohol Ads

This article compares model characterizations and activity portrayals of blacks and whites in modern cigarette and alcohol advertising. An analysis of 418 cigarette and alcohol ads appearing in

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The authors test the hypotheses that parameters of advertising sensitivity for adolescents are significant and perhaps larger than those for adults. Cigarette brand shares of advertising voice are

Cigarette advertising in magazines for latinas, white women, and men, 1998–2002: a preliminary investigation

The preliminary findings suggest that the tobacco industry may target women in a manner that differs from its targeting of men, and may target Latinas in a way that it does not target White women.

Advertising of Alcoholic Beverages in African-American and Women's Magazines: Implications for Health Communication

Although much criticism of alcohol advertising has focused on the youth and underage drinking, targeted marketing of alcohol beverages towards minorities and women has created much controversy in

The Changing Character of American Cigarette Advertising: Content Analysis Findings

This paper reviews all published cigarette advertising content analyses to identify common results. American cigarette advertising has become more voluminous, more visual rather than verbal, more

Targeting Vulnerable Segments in Cigarette Advertising: Ethical Criteria and Public Policy Implications

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The Master Settlement Agreement and Visual Imagery of Cigarette Advertising in Two Popular Youth Magazines

While the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) between tobacco companies and forty-six states banned targeting youth through advertising and promotions, it did not designate specific visual imagery

Race Logic and “Being like Mike”: Representations of Athletes in Advertising, 1985–1994

Abstract Although participation in sports by black athletes has increased, evidence remains that these athletes still face discriminatory practices. One arena in which black athletes are treated

The communicative effectiveness of ethnically oriented advertising

A study conducted on Asian ethnic consumers in the UK showed ethnic origin to be a major segmentation variable in differentiating ethnic and white intergroup responses to four different executions of

The outing of Philip Morris: advertising tobacco to gay men.

The events surrounding the first time a major tobacco company advertised in gay media demonstrate the tobacco industry's relationship to the gay community is relatively undeveloped, a fact that may provide tobacco control advocates an opportunity for early intervention.



How Cigarettes Are Advertised in Magazines: Special Messages for Special Markets

Tobacco companies have the ability to target their products to segmented audiences by advertising in specialty magazines. Segmentation is a means of providing audiences with ads appropriate to their

The Effects of Actors' Race in Commercial Advertising: Review and Extension

Abstract Previous research examining the influence of actors' race on viewers' attitudes and purchase intentions indicates that, although white subjects do not react extremely negatively to black

How Cigarettes Are Sold in Magazines: Special Messages for Special Markets.

Tobacco companies have the ability to target their products to segmented audiences by advertising in specialty magazines. Segmentation is a means of providing audiences with ads appropriate to their

Racial Differences in Perceptions of Media Advertising Credibility

w A substantial number of research studies . has examined racial differences in media consumption. Three studies based on national samples provide ample support for the general conclusion that blacks

Changes in the Visual Imagery of Cigarette Ads, 1954–1986

This study provides a descriptive account of how the visually oriented content of cigarette ads changed over three health and smoking event eras: 1954–1970, the pre-broadcast ban era; 1971–1983, the

The Informational Content of Cigarette Advertising: 1926–1986

A content analysis of 568 cigarette ads during 1926–86 found that most explicit claims (i.e., statements) are about health, construction, and taste. Consistent with theoretical predictions, and

Cigarette advertising and media coverage of smoking and health.

  • K. Warner
  • Medicine
    The New England journal of medicine
  • 1985
An analysis of time trends in cigarette smoking indicates that the public does respond to antismoking information when such information is presented, and journalists themselves should respond to the tobacco industry's attempt to erode freedom of the press.

An historical review of women, smoking and advertising.

  • H. Howe
  • Economics
    Health education
  • 1984
A review of historical events between 1935 and 1979 of anti-smoking publicity, the growth in cigarette advertisers' appeal to women, and the changing proportion of women smoking can provide some insights as to what interventions might prove successful in arresting the growth of the numbers of young female smokers.

Smoking by blacks and whites: socioeconomic and demographic differences.

It is found that the odds of ever smoking are not higher for Blacks compared with Whites, when the other variables are controlled, and Blacks are significantly less likely than Whites to quit smoking regardless of SES or demographic factors.

Tobacco Industry Response to Public Health Concern: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Ads

  • K. Warner
  • Medicine
    Health education quarterly
  • 1985
Understanding industry advertising tactics can assist public health professionals in developing insights into the promotion of smoking and in formulating smoking control strategies, though highly exploratory and tentative in nature, this study is offered in the spirit of increasing such understanding.