The motoneurons, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and sympathetic ganglion (SG) cells forming the common peroneal (CPN) and tibial (TN) nerves of young and semiadult monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were localised by the horseradish peroxidase method of tracing neuronal connections. The motoneurons forming the CPN occur in the L4-L6 segments, appearing as 1-3 groups and occupying the retroposterolateral (rpl), posterolateral (pl) and central (c) groups of motor nuclei. The motoneurons forming the TN occur in the L4-L7 segments, appearing as 1-4 groups and occupying the rpl, pl, c and anterolateral (al) groups. The motoneurons and DRG cells forming the CPN show peak frequencies at the L5 level, and the SG cells forming the same nerve, at the L6 level in most cases. The motoneurons and DRG cells forming the TN show peak frequencies at the L6 level and the SG cells forming the same nerve, also at the L6 level in most cases. The bulk of motoneurons, DRG and SG cells forming the CPN and TN are concentrated in two segmental levels. For CPN the motoneurons measure between 14-76 micron in their average somal diameters and for TN, 16-70 micron. The majority of them (65.5% for CPN motoneurons and 72% for TN motoneurons) have average somal diameters greater than 38 micron. The size spectrum of the DRG cells forming the CPN is similar to that of DRG cells forming the TN, being 12-78 micron for CPN and 10-76 micron for TN. The sympathetic neurons forming the CPN (measuring 10-44 micron) have a larger size spectrum than those forming the TN (measuring 6-33 micron). The diameter spectrum (3-20 micron for TN and 2-19 micron for CPN) and peak frequency distributions (10 micron for both TN and CPN) of the myelinated fibres present in the CPN and TN are also similar, with the CPN fibres skewing towards a slightly larger size. Many of the fibres in the young and semi-adult monkeys are not yet myelinated.