Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns

@article{Shugart2005SemiPresidentialSD,
  title={Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns},
  author={M. Shugart},
  journal={French Politics},
  year={2005},
  volume={3},
  pages={323-351}
}
Maurice Duverger in 1980 advanced the concept of a ‘semi-presidential’ regime: a mix of a popularly elected and powerful presidency with a prime minister heading a cabinet subject to assembly confidence. We can understand the performance of these regimes through a neo-Madisonian perspective that stresses agency relations between institutional actors. Executive and legislature as separate agents of the electorate — as in presidentialism — necessitates transactional interbranch relations. Fusion… Expand

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Breaking the Parliamentary Chain of Delegation: Presidents and Non-partisan Cabinet Members in European Democracies
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