Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers.

  title={Self-reports: How the questions shape the answers.},
  author={Norbert Schwarz},
  journal={American Psychologist},
  • N. Schwarz
  • Published 1 February 1999
  • Psychology
  • American Psychologist
Self-reports of behaviors and attitudes are strongly influenced by features of the research instrument, including question wording, format, and context. Recent research has addressed the underlying cognitive and communicative processes, which are systematic and increasingly wellunderstood. I review what has been learned, focusing on issues of question comprehension, behavioral frequency reports, and the emergence of context effects in attitude measurement. The accumulating knowledge about the… 

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