Cosmetic breast surgery is the only therapeutic alternative for psychological and physical complications associated with micromasty, breast ptosis, and macromasty. We analyzed the effects of 2 variables, time, and type of cosmetic breast surgery, on anxiety symptomatology and quality of life.Following a mixed 3 × 4 design, 3 groups of women with breast augmentation (n = 63), mastopexy (n = 42), and breast reduction (n = 30) were selected and evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey at 4 different times, the preoperative stage, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postoperative. Pearson's chi square, Welch's U, Games-Howell tests, mixed analysis of variance, and Cohen's d and w for effect size were calculated.Results relating to anxiety (state and trait) showed that the time factor was significant (P < 0.001) with differences between the preoperative stage (higher anxiety levels) and the 3 postoperative stages: at 1 month (P < 0.001), 6 months (P < 0.001), and 12 months (P < 0.001). In quality of life, type of surgery and time factors were found to have interactive effects on vitality (P = 0.044) and role-emotional (P = 0.023) dimensions. Compared to the other 2 groups, women who had undergone mastopexy felt worse (vitality) at 1 month since surgery than in the other stages, and better at 6 months since surgery (role-emotional). In the rest of the dimensions, and focusing on the most relevant effect sizes, the type of surgery made a difference in the physical functioning (P = 0.005) and role-physical (P = 0.020) dimensions, where women who had had breast reduction felt worse than those who had had augmentation. Time also resulted in differences in the physical functioning (P < 0.001), role-physical (P < 0.001), and bodily pain (P < 0.001) dimensions, where women felt worse at 1 month since surgery than during the rest of the stages, as well as in the social functioning dimension (P < 0.001) at 1 month, compared to 6 months postoperative.We conclude that in the long term, women who have cosmetic breast surgery recover their physical and psychological well-being.