Self-reference and the encoding of personal information.

@article{Rogers1977SelfreferenceAT,
  title={Self-reference and the encoding of personal information.},
  author={Timothy B. Rogers and Nicholas A. Kuiper and W. S. Kirker},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={1977},
  volume={35 9},
  pages={
          677-88
        }
}
The degree to which the self is implicated in processing personal information was investigated. Subjects rated adjectives on four tasks designed to force varying kinds of encoding: structural, phonemic, semantic, and self-reference. In two experiments, incidental recall of the rated words indicated that adjectives rates under the self-reference task were recalled the best. These results indicate that self-reference is a rich and powerful encoding process. As an aspect of the human information… 

Tables from this paper

Recall of congruent information in the self-reference task

Information descriptive of the self has prior associations with the representation of the self in memory. Therefore, information descriptive of the self should be recalled better than information not

The role of self-cognition in the processing of personal information

The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the role of self-cognition in efficiently activating one's self-schemas for processing self-relevant information. Nine self-cognition (SC) and 12 non

Self-memory biases in explicit and incidental encoding of trait adjectives

Self-Schemata and Scripts

According to the levels-of-processing approach to memory, the richer the existing information base involved in cognitive processing, the stronger the memory trace and the higher subsequent retention, it was predicted that self- oriented information would be better remembered than situation-oriented information.

The Self-Reference Effect: Demonstrating Schematic Processing in the Classroom

The self-reference effect, which occurs when individuals show superior memory for information that pertains to their self-schemas, was demonstrated in a classroom setting. Subjects first evaluated

Cognitive and neural development of individuated self-representation in children.

The relation of memory for self- and mother-referentially processed information in participants age 7-13 years is examined, finding the difference in self versus mother memory correlates with regions of the rostral anterior cingulate associated with affective salience.

Elaboration, organization, and the self-reference effect in memory.

The experiments reported in this article challenge this interpretation of the self-reference effect by demonstrating that self-referent and semantic encodings produce virtually identical free recall levels if they are first equated for the amount of organization they encourage.

Affective valence and the self-reference effect: influence of retrieval conditions.

Findings suggest that the difference in memory between positive and negative self-referent information is due, at least in part, to a control exerted on memory retrieval.

Self-Referential Memory for the Big-Five Personality Traits

A classic finding in the study of episodic memory, known as the self-reference effect, suggests that people who relate information to themselves typically show greater recall for that information

The nature of self-referent encoding: The contributions of elaborative and organizational processes.

A number of investigators have demonstrated that relating information to the self (self-referent encoding) produces better recall than structural or semantic encoding of the same material. The
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES

Self-schemata and processing information about the self.

Attempts to organize, summarize, or explain one's own behavior in a particular domain result in the formation of cognitive structures about the self or selfschemata. Self-schemata are cognitive

Memory for pictures and words as a function of level of processing: Depth or dual coding?

Results indicated that retention of concrete words increased as a direct function of the processing-task variable (structural < phonemic <semantic), however, for both abstract words and pictures, phonemic and semantic processing produced equivalent memory performance.

Depth of processing and the retention of words

SUMMARY Ten experiments were designed to explore the levels of processing framework for human memory research proposed by Craik and Lockhart (1972). The basic notions are that the episodic memory

Memory for words recently classified

It is argued that the large and pervasive memorial advantages of congruity arise because a congruous query, unlike an incongruous one, fosters a relational encoding of keyword and descriptor.

ON PREDICTING SOME OF THE PEOPLE SOME OF THE TIME: THE SEARCH FOR CROSS-SITUATIONAL CONSISTENCIES IN BEHAVIOR

The historically recurring controversy over the existence of cross-situational consistencies in behavior is sustained by the discrepancy between our intuitions, which affirm their existence, and the