Self-recognition in Saguinus ? A critical essay

  title={Self-recognition in
 ? A critical essay},
  author={James R Anderson and Gordon G Gallup Jr},
  journal={Animal Behaviour},
No abstractCopyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. 
Life beyond the mirror: a reply to Anderson & Gallup
This paper presents a meta-anatomy of the woolly mammoth and its role in the evolution of social behaviour and shows clear patterns of growth and decline that are consistent with that of other animals. Expand
The nature of visual self-recognition
It is argued that the visual self-recognition skills evident in humans and great apes are a byproduct of a general capacity to collate representations, and need not index other aspects of self-awareness. Expand
Investigating self-recognition in bonobos: mirror exposure reduces looking time to self but not unfamiliar conspecifics
Investigation of how bonobos respond to different types of images of themselves and others, both before and after prolonged mirror exposure found that subjects paid significantly less attention to contingent images of ourselves than to non-contingent images of itself and unfamiliar individuals, suggesting they perceived the non- Contingent self-images as novel. Expand
Mirror self-recognition: a review and critique of attempts to promote and engineer self-recognition in primates
It is concluded that to date there is no compelling evidence that prosimians, monkeys, or lesser apes—gibbons and siamangs—are capable of mirror self-recognition. Expand
Mirror responses in a group of Miopithecus talapoin
This study applied a rigorous methodology that took into account habituation of subjects to the mirror as an object and to the experimental situation, and found that the talapoin monkeys in the study showed a prerequisite for self-recognition, namely comparing their body parts to the image of these in the mirror. Expand
The evolution of primate visual self-recognition: evidence of absence in lesser apes
It is shown that lesser apes (family Hylobatidae) fail to use the mirror to find surreptitiously placed marks on their head, in spite of being strongly motivated to retrieve directly visible marks from the mirror surface itself and from their own limbs. Expand
Do rhesus monkeys recognize themselves in mirrors?
It is concluded that the article fails to provide acceptable evidence for self‐recognition in rhesus monkeys. Expand
The Self and Memory
Part 1. The Emergence of the Self and Memory. Denise R. Beike, James M. Lampinen, Douglas A. Behrend, Evolving Conceptions of the Self and Memory. Jochen Barth, Daniel J. Povinelli, John G. H. Cant,Expand
Mental evolution and development: Evidence for secondary representation in children, great apes, and other animals.
Recent interest in the development and evolution of theory of mind has provided a wealth of information about representational skills in both children and animals, According to J, Perrier (1991),Expand
Observations on the behavior of gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys, H. gabriellae, and H. lar) in the presence of mirrors.
Three captive gibbons (Hylobates leucogenys, H. gabriellae, and H. lar) were videotaped in the course of longitudinal exposure to mirrors introduced into their familiar cage or island housing situation, exhibiting great individual differences in their behavioral reactions to mirrors. Expand


Chimpanzees: Self-Recognition
After prolonged exposure to their reflected images in mirrors, chimpanzees marked with red dye showed evidence of being able to recognize their own reflections. Monkeys did not appear to have thisExpand
Self-recognition in primates: further reflections create a hall of mirrors
Gallup et al.'s (1995, Anim. Behav., 50, 1525–1532) defense of the view that Gallup's mark test has provided evidence of self-recognition in apes is countered point by point. The plasusibility of theExpand
"Self-awareness" in the pigeon.
Each of three pigeons used a mirror to locate a spot on its body which it could not see directly, and this example suggests an account in terms of environmental events. Expand
Toward a Comparative Psychology of Self-Awareness: Species Limitations and Cognitive Consequences
The first published report of mirror self-recognition in a nonhuman appeared in the literature several decades ago (Gallup, 1970). Subsequent to the original demonstration in chimpanzees, a largeExpand
Further reflections on self-recognition in primates
Abstract A review of the literature, together with a reanalysis of existing data and some additional data, was used to show that Heyes' (1994, Anim. Behav. , 47 , 909–919) recent critique ofExpand
Absence of self-recognition in a monkey (Macaca fascicularis) following prolonged exposure to a mirror.
  • G. Gallup
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Developmental psychobiology
  • 1977
The data indicate possible differences between great apes and monkeys in self-awareness and a more explicit test of self-recognition yielded negative results. Expand
Monkeys, apes, mirrors and minds: The evolution of self-awareness in primates
The methodology and evidence for self-recognition in primates along with the assumption that this ability is an indicator of self-awareness are reviewed, and the failure of the gorilla to master the task is discussed in some detail. Expand
Chimpanzees recognize themselves in mirrors
Abstract Heyes’ (1994, Anim. Behav., 97, 909–919; 1995, Anim. Behav., 50, 1533–1542) recent account of chimpanzees’, Pan troglodytes, reactions to mirrors challenged the view that they are capable ofExpand
Self-recognition in chimpanzees and orangutans, but not gorillas
Recognition of one's own reflection in a mirror qualifies as an objective test of self-awareness. Although most primates appear incapable of learning that their behavior is the source of the behaviorExpand
Reflections on self-recognition in primates
Abstract Abstract. Evidence that apes touch head marks more in the presence of a mirror than in its absence have been taken to indicate that, unlike monkeys, they are capable of self-recognition andExpand