Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.

  title={Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.},
  author={A. Bandura},
  journal={Psychological review},
  volume={84 2},
  • A. Bandura
  • Published 27 February 1977
  • Psychology
  • Psychological review
The present article presents an integrative theoretical framework to explain and to predict psychological changes achieved by different modes of treatment. This theory states that psychological procedures, whatever their form, alter the level and strength of self-efficacy. It is hypothesized that expectations of personal efficacy determine whether coping behavior will be initiated, how much effort will be expended, and how long it will be sustained in the face of obstacles and aversive… 

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