Self-discipline gives girls the edge : Gender in self-discipline, grades, and achievement test scores

  title={Self-discipline gives girls the edge : Gender in self-discipline, grades, and achievement test scores},
  author={Angela L. Duckworth and M. Seligman},
  journal={Journal of Educational Psychology},
Throughout elementary, middle, and high school, girls earn higher grades than boys in all major subjects. Girls, however, do not outperform boys on achievement or IQ tests. To date, explanations for the underprediction of girls' GPAs by standardized tests have focused on gender differences favoring boys on such tests. The authors' investigation suggests an additional explanation: Girls are more self-disciplined, and this advantage is more relevant to report card grades than to achievement or… 
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