Self-consciousness: beyond the looking-glass and what dogs found there

  title={Self-consciousness: beyond the looking-glass and what dogs found there},
  author={Roberto Cazzolla Gatti},
  journal={Ethology Ecology \& Evolution},
  • R. Gatti
  • Published 13 November 2015
  • Psychology
  • Ethology Ecology & Evolution
Self-recognition, that is, the recognition of one’s own self, has been studied mainly by examining animals’ and children’s responses to their reflections in mirrors (Gallup et al. 2002). The defini... 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Grey wolf may show signs of self-awareness with the sniff test of self-recognition
The ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, which seems an exceedingly rare capacity in the anesthetized species, is studied.
An evolutionary view of self-awareness
That dog won’t fit: body size awareness in dogs
It is concluded that the results convincingly assume that dogs can represent their own body size in novel contexts.
The psychological speciesism of humanism
It is argued that changing conceptual foundations in comparative research and discoveries of advanced cognition in many non-human species reveal humanism’s psychological speciesism and its similarity with common justifications of within-species discrimination.
The mental lives of sheep and the quest for a psychological taxonomy
M&M’s (2019) review of the empirical literature on sheep cognition should be understood in the context of two developments in psychology: the enormous and growing body of research into nonhuman cognition and the resulting theoretical shift towards a nonanthropocentric psychological taxonomy.
First evidence towards chemical self-recognition in a gecko
This study provides first evidence towards self- Recognition and for a social function of chemical present on faeces in tokay geckos but further tests are needed to confirm true self-recognition.
Armed with information: chemical self-recognition in the octopus
The octopus is presented as an example of a creature in which peripheral chemoreceptive processes appear to be a significant component of self-recognition.
Chemically mediated self-recognition in sibling juvenile common gartersnakes (Thamnophis sirtalis) reared on same or different diets: evidence for a chemical mirror?
The possibility that a chemical ‘mirror’ form of self-recognition exists in squamate reptiles is supported.
Conceptual Framework for Life Skills Study on Poor Households from Life Skills Theory Perspective
Previous studies from psychosocial perspectives found that there was a gap of knowledge, especially from aspects of the conceptual framework of life skills of the poor in handling family poverty. The


The Thief in the Mirror
The few animals capable of recognizing themselves in a mirror have advanced social cognition related to adopting the perspective of someone else.
Self-Awareness in Animals and Humans: Developmental Perspectives
Self-recognition in apes and monkeys: implications for comparative study of highly dissimilar species Lori Marino, Diana Reiss and Gordon G. Gallup, Jr.
Self‐Awareness in Human and Chimpanzee Infants: What Is Measured and What Is Meant by the Mark and Mirror Test?
The objective study of self-recognition, with a mirror and a mark applied to the face, was conducted independently by Gallup (1970) for use with chimpanzees and monkeys, and by Amsterdam (1972) for
Five levels of self-awareness as they unfold early in life
  • P. Rochat
  • Psychology
    Consciousness and Cognition
  • 2003
Consciousness and Self in Animals: Some Reflections
It is concluded that there are degrees of consciousness and self among animals and that it is likely that no animal has the same highly developed sense of self as that displayed by most humans.
Mirror self-recognition in the bottlenose dolphin: A case of cognitive convergence
  • D. ReissLori Marino
  • Psychology, Physics
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
Two dolphins were exposed to reflective surfaces, and both demonstrated responses consistent with the use of the mirror to investigate marked parts of the body.
Reflections on animal selves.
Self-recognition in chimpanzees and orangutans, but not gorillas
Mirror-Induced Behavior in the Magpie (Pica pica): Evidence of Self-Recognition
These findings provide the first evidence of mirror self- Recognition in a non-mammalian species and suggest that essential components of human self-recognition have evolved independently in different vertebrate classes with a separate evolutionary history.
Mirror self-image reactions before age two.
The results indicate the following age-related sequence of behavior before the mirror: the first prolonged and repeated reaction of an infant to his mirror image is that of a sociable “playmate” from about 6 through 12 months of age.