Self-Organizing Pedestrian Movement

@article{Helbing2001SelfOrganizingPM,
  title={Self-Organizing Pedestrian Movement},
  author={Dirk Helbing and P{\'e}ter Moln{\'a}r and Ill{\'e}s J. Farkas and Kai Bolay},
  journal={Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design},
  year={2001},
  volume={28},
  pages={361 - 383}
}
Although pedestrians have individual preferences, aims, and destinations, the dynamics of pedestrian crowds is surprisingly predictable. Pedestrians can move freely only at small pedestrian densities. Otherwise their motion is affected by repulsive interactions with other pedestrians, giving rise to self-organization phenomena. Examples of the resulting patterns of motion are separate lanes of uniform walking direction in crowds of oppositely moving pedestrians or oscillations of the passing… 

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