Self-Assembly at the Macroscopic Scale

  title={Self-Assembly at the Macroscopic Scale},
  author={R. Gro{\ss} and Marco Dorigo},
  journal={Proceedings of the IEEE},
In this paper, we review half a century of research on the design of systems displaying (physical) self-assembly of macroscopic components. We report on the experience gained in the design of 21 such systems, exhibiting components ranging from passive mechanical parts to mobile robots. We present a taxonomy of the systems and discuss design principles and functions. Finally, we summarize the main achievements and indicate potential directions for future research. 

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