Self-Assembly at All Scales

  title={Self-Assembly at All Scales},
  author={George M. Whitesides and Bartosz A. Grzybowski},
  pages={2418 - 2421}
Self-assembly is the autonomous organization of components into patterns or structures without human intervention. Self-assembling processes are common throughout nature and technology. They involve components from the molecular (crystals) to the planetary (weather systems) scale and many different kinds of interactions. The concept of self-assembly is used increasingly in many disciplines, with a different flavor and emphasis in each. 

Self-Assembly Fabrication

Self-assembly refers to the fundamental principle which generates autonomous organization of components into structural patterns or well-defined structure without external instructions or human

Topological Design of Heterogeneous Self-Assembly

Controlling the topology of structures self-assembled from a set of heterogeneous building blocks is highly desirable for many applications, but is poorly understood theoretically. Here we show that

Hierarchical Self-organization and Self-assembly: Metal Nanoparticles in Polymer Matrices

Although thermodynamically different, self-assembly and dissipative structure formation often work together to bring about highly ordered structures in an open system. This mutual assistance between

Self-Assembly and Supramolecular Assembly in Nanophase Separated Polymers and Thin Films

Self-assembly (SA) is the process by which pre-existing molecular components, objects and devices spontaneously organize themselves into more ordered state in a discrete noncovalently bound

Consistent concepts of self-organization and self-assembly

We critically review concepts of self-organization and self-assembly, and extract from this analysis consistent and workable definitions of both concepts that are applicable across many scientific

Self-Assembly at the Macroscopic Scale

This paper reports on the experience gained in the design of 21 systems displaying (physical) self-assembly of macroscopic components, exhibiting components ranging from passive mechanical parts to mobile robots.

Self-Assembly in Materials Synthesis

The synthesis of materials via self-assembly typically involves the spontaneous and reversible organization of small building blocks for the purpose of creating conglomerate structures over larger

Dynamic Self-Organization and Catalysis: Periodic versus Random Driving Forces

Dynamic self-assembly is an emerging area of research where properly designed self-assembly elements can be used reversibly to trigger and control some tasks at the molecular level. The interaction...



Forming electrical networks in three dimensions by self-assembly

Self-assembly of millimeter-scale polyhedra, with surfaces patterned with solder dots, wires, and light-emitting diodes, generated electrically functional, three-dimensional networks. The patterns of

Self-Assembly of 10-μm-Sized Objects into Ordered Three-Dimensional Arrays

This paper describes the self-assembly of small objectspolyhedral metal plates with largest dimensions of 10 to 30 μminto highly ordered, three-dimensional arrays. The plates were fabricated using

Dynamic self-assembly of magnetized, millimetre-sized objects rotating at a liquid–air interface

This work describes the formation of dynamic patterns of millimetre-sized magnetic disks at a liquid–air interface, subject to a magnetic field produced by a rotating permanent magnet, which should lead to a better understanding of dynamic self-assembly, while providing a test-bed for stability theories of interacting point vortices and vortex patches.

Control of crystal nucleation by patterned self-assembled monolayers

An important requirement in the fabrication of advanced inorganic materials, such as ceramics and semiconductors, is control over crystallization. In principle, the synthetic growth of crystals can

Directed assembly of one-dimensional nanostructures into functional networks.

It is shown that nanowires can be assembled into parallel arrays with control of the average separation and, by combining fluidic alignment with surface-patterning techniques, that it is also possible to control periodicity.

Fabrication of Micrometer‐Scale, Patterned Polyhedra by Self‐Assembly

We recently proposed and demonstrated a strategy for fabricating self-assembling, three-dimensional (3D) electrical networks. In this demonstration, we used millimeter scale building blocks

Bubble Raft Model for an Amorphous Alloy

  • Materials Science
  • 1972
A two-dimensional model of an amorphous alloy is given by a raft composed of two sizes of bubbles. The density, method of close packing and mechanical properties of the alloy are well simulated.

Colloidal ordering from phase separation in a liquid- crystalline continuous phase

It is reported that a binary mixture consisting of an isotropic fluid and a liquid crystal forming the continuous phase does not fully separate into two phases, but self-organizes into highly ordered arrays of monodisperse colloidal droplet chains.

The Self-Made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature

From the Publisher: Why do similar patterns and forms appear in nature in settings that seem to bear no relation to one another? The Windblown ripples of desert sand follow a sinuous course that

Microstructure to substrate self-assembly using capillary forces

We have demonstrated the fluidic self-assembly of micromachined silicon parts onto silicon and quartz substrates in a preconfigured pattern with submicrometer positioning precision. Self-assembly is