Self‐reported and observed female genital cutting in rural Tanzania: associated demographic factors, HIV and sexually transmitted infections

@article{Klouman2005SelfreportedAO,
  title={Self‐reported and observed female genital cutting in rural Tanzania: associated demographic factors, HIV and sexually transmitted infections},
  author={Elise Klouman and Rachel N Manongi and Knut-Inge Klepp},
  journal={Tropical Medicine \& International Health},
  year={2005},
  volume={10}
}
Objectives  To determine (i) the prevalence and type of female genital cutting (FGC) in a rural multi‐ethnic village in Tanzania, (ii) its associated demographic factors, (iii) its possible associations with HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infertility and (iv) to assess the consistency between self‐reported and clinically observed FGC. 
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The evidence is reviewed to review the evidence and identify unanswered questions and research gaps regarding a potential association between FGC and HIV transmission.
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To assess whether the extent of female genital mutilation (FGM) influences the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), a large number of women and girls in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone FGM.
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Data is used from a representative sample of ever-married women aged 17-55 years in Minya, Egypt to examine the effects of type of FGC and type of circumciser on a woman's risks of primary infertility and pregnancy loss.
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TLDR
A large number of women in sub-Saharan Africa are subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting and the practice may have an adverse effect on women's physical, psychological, and sexual health.
DISENTANGLING THE COMPLEX ASSOCIATION BETWEEN FEMALE GENITAL CUTTING AND HIV AMONG KENYAN WOMEN
TLDR
Evidence of a statistically significant association between female genital cutting and HIV is demonstrated and the findings suggest the behavioural pathway of association between FGC and HIV as well as an underlying complex interplay of bio-behavioural and social variables being important in disentangling the association.
Female Genital Cutting and Infertility in Marriage: A Cross-Sectional Study among Women in Nigeria
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  • 2020
TLDR
The results show that “unexplained” risk factors of female infertility are not significantly traceable to female genital cutting, and preventing infertility requires comprehensive approach rather than focusing on a single factor.
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The Association of Female Circumcision With HIV Status and Sexual Behavior in Mali: A Multilevel Analysis
  • A. Smolak
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes
  • 2014
TLDR
FC is associated with HIV-positive status but not with a decrease in sexual risk behavior, which has important implication for FC and HIV prevention.
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References

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OBJECTIVES To study the prevalence, type, social correlates and attitudes towards female genital cutting (FGC) among urban women in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania; and to examine the association between FGC
Female genital cutting in southern urban and peri‐urban Nigeria: self‐reported validity, social determinants and secular decline
TLDR
Prevalence of FGC was highest among the Bini and Urhobo, among those with the least education, and particularly high among adherents to Pentecostal churches; this was independent of related social factors.
The long‐term reproductive health consequences of female genital cutting in rural Gambia: a community‐based survey
TLDR
The relationship between FGC and long‐term reproductive morbidity remains unclear, especially in settings where type II cutting predominates, and efforts to eradicate it should incorporate a human rights approach.
The association between female genital cutting and correlates of sexual and gynaecological morbidity in Edo State, Nigeria
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To examine the association between female genital cutting and frequency of sexual and gynaecological symptoms among a cohort of cut versus uncut women in Edo State of Nigeria, a large number of women are cut.
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A significant association was found between HIV infection and STD cases (in women) and between HIV infections and a history of STDs (in men), and the heavy burden of untreated RTIs in females calls for a more gender-specific approach to HIV and STD prevention.
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The literature on female genital mutilation within a feminist theoretical context is discussed and parallels with other similar practices in developed and developing countries will be drawn and policy strategies discussed.
The association between female genital cutting and correlates of sexual and gynaecological morbidity in Edo State, Nigeria
TLDR
It is agreed that there is no suggestion from the data that cut women are less sexually active or less susceptible to genital infections or pregnancy at an early age than uncut women, and the conclusion that female genital cutting does not attenuate sexual feelings does not follow.
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