Self‐reported and observed female genital cutting in rural Tanzania: associated demographic factors, HIV and sexually transmitted infections

  title={Self‐reported and observed female genital cutting in rural Tanzania: associated demographic factors, HIV and sexually transmitted infections},
  author={Elise Klouman and Rachel N Manongi and Knut-Inge Klepp},
  journal={Tropical Medicine \& International Health},
Objectives  To determine (i) the prevalence and type of female genital cutting (FGC) in a rural multi‐ethnic village in Tanzania, (ii) its associated demographic factors, (iii) its possible associations with HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and infertility and (iv) to assess the consistency between self‐reported and clinically observed FGC. 
Female Genital Cutting and HIV Transmission: Is There an Association?
The evidence is reviewed to review the evidence and identify unanswered questions and research gaps regarding a potential association between FGC and HIV transmission.
A case–control study on the association between female genital mutilation and sexually transmitted infections in Sudan
To assess whether the extent of female genital mutilation (FGM) influences the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs), a large number of women and girls in sub-Saharan Africa have undergone FGM.
Female genital cutting and reproductive experience in Minya, Egypt.
Data is used from a representative sample of ever-married women aged 17-55 years in Minya, Egypt to examine the effects of type of FGC and type of circumciser on a woman's risks of primary infertility and pregnancy loss.
Prevalence and associated factors of female genital mutilation among Somali refugees in eastern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study
FGM is widely practised among the Somali refugee community in Eastern Ethiopia, and there was a considerable support for the continuation of the practice particularly among women, indicating a reported shift of FGM from its severe form to milder clitoral cutting.
Associations between female genital mutilation/cutting and HIV: a review of the evidence.
A large number of women in sub-Saharan Africa are subjected to female genital mutilation/cutting and the practice may have an adverse effect on women's physical, psychological, and sexual health.
Evidence of a statistically significant association between female genital cutting and HIV is demonstrated and the findings suggest the behavioural pathway of association between FGC and HIV as well as an underlying complex interplay of bio-behavioural and social variables being important in disentangling the association.
Female Genital Cutting and Infertility in Marriage: A Cross-Sectional Study among Women in Nigeria
  • Medicine
  • 2020
The results show that “unexplained” risk factors of female infertility are not significantly traceable to female genital cutting, and preventing infertility requires comprehensive approach rather than focusing on a single factor.
The Incidence of Human Papillomavirus in Tanzanian Adolescent Girls Before Reported Sexual Debut
The Association of Female Circumcision With HIV Status and Sexual Behavior in Mali: A Multilevel Analysis
  • A. Smolak
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes
  • 2014
FC is associated with HIV-positive status but not with a decrease in sexual risk behavior, which has important implication for FC and HIV prevention.


Female genital cutting in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: changing attitudes?
OBJECTIVES To study the prevalence, type, social correlates and attitudes towards female genital cutting (FGC) among urban women in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania; and to examine the association between FGC
Female genital cutting in southern urban and peri‐urban Nigeria: self‐reported validity, social determinants and secular decline
Prevalence of FGC was highest among the Bini and Urhobo, among those with the least education, and particularly high among adherents to Pentecostal churches; this was independent of related social factors.
The long‐term reproductive health consequences of female genital cutting in rural Gambia: a community‐based survey
The relationship between FGC and long‐term reproductive morbidity remains unclear, especially in settings where type II cutting predominates, and efforts to eradicate it should incorporate a human rights approach.
The association between female genital cutting and correlates of sexual and gynaecological morbidity in Edo State, Nigeria
To examine the association between female genital cutting and frequency of sexual and gynaecological symptoms among a cohort of cut versus uncut women in Edo State of Nigeria, a large number of women are cut.
HIV and reproductive tract infections in a total village population in rural Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: women at increased risk.
A significant association was found between HIV infection and STD cases (in women) and between HIV infections and a history of STDs (in men), and the heavy burden of untreated RTIs in females calls for a more gender-specific approach to HIV and STD prevention.
Female Genital Mutilation in Moshi Rural District, Tanzania
Investigation in one particular area of Tanzania found mothers and grandmothers were the most influential in persuading girls to undergo the operation, and the communities involved could see some of the disadvantages and were willing to discuss it.
Female genital mutilation: the potential for increased risk of HIV infection
  • K. Kun
  • Medicine
    International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • 1997
Prevalence and Correlates of Female Genital Mutilation in the Kassena-Nankana District of Northern Ghana
Multivariate analysis reveals lower risks among followers of monotheist religions (Christianity and Islam) while ethnicity is found to have no major effect, and schooling was found to be the most discriminating factor.
Female genital mutilation: an overview.
  • J. Wright
  • Sociology
    Journal of advanced nursing
  • 1996
The literature on female genital mutilation within a feminist theoretical context is discussed and parallels with other similar practices in developed and developing countries will be drawn and policy strategies discussed.
The association between female genital cutting and correlates of sexual and gynaecological morbidity in Edo State, Nigeria
It is agreed that there is no suggestion from the data that cut women are less sexually active or less susceptible to genital infections or pregnancy at an early age than uncut women, and the conclusion that female genital cutting does not attenuate sexual feelings does not follow.