Self‐construal orientation: Validation of an instrument and a study of the relationship to leadership communication style

@article{Hackman1999SelfconstrualOV,
  title={Self‐construal orientation: Validation of an instrument and a study of the relationship to leadership communication style},
  author={Michael Z. Hackman and Kathleen Ellis and Craig E. Johnson and Constance M. Staley},
  journal={Communication Quarterly},
  year={1999},
  volume={47},
  pages={183-195}
}
The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to test rigorously the measurement equivalence of the Independent and Interdependent Self‐Construal Scales (Gudykunst et al., 1994) across three cultural groups and for males and females, and (b) to determine the comparative amount of variance in self‐perceived leadership communication style that can be predicted by self‐construal orientation, culture, and biological sex. College students from the United States (n = 224), New Zealand (n = 218), and the… 

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