Self‐Construal, Reference Groups, and Brand Meaning

@article{Escalas2005SelfConstrualRG,
  title={Self‐Construal, Reference Groups, and Brand Meaning},
  author={Jennifer Edson Escalas and James R. Bettman},
  journal={Journal of Consumer Research},
  year={2005},
  volume={32},
  pages={378-389}
}
We propose that consumers purchase brands in part to construct their self-concepts and, in so doing, form self-brand connections. We focus on reference groups as a source of brand meaning. Results from two studies show that brands with images consistent with an ingroup enhance self-brand connections for all consumers, whereas brands with images that are consistent with an outgroup have a stronger negative effect on independent versus interdependent consumers. We propose that this differential… 

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