Self‐Construal, Reference Groups, and Brand Meaning

  title={Self‐Construal, Reference Groups, and Brand Meaning},
  author={Jennifer Edson Escalas and James R. Bettman},
  journal={Journal of Consumer Research},
We propose that consumers purchase brands in part to construct their self-concepts and, in so doing, form self-brand connections. We focus on reference groups as a source of brand meaning. Results from two studies show that brands with images consistent with an ingroup enhance self-brand connections for all consumers, whereas brands with images that are consistent with an outgroup have a stronger negative effect on independent versus interdependent consumers. We propose that this differential… 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Are All Out-Groups Created Equal? Consumer Identity and Dissociative Influence

Past research finds that consumers exhibit weak self-brand connections to brands associated with out-groups. We extend this work by demonstrating that products associated with dissociative reference

The Role of Self-Construal and Competitiveness in Consumers’ Self-Brand Connection with Domestic vs. Foreign Brands

Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of self-construal (independence vs. interdependence) traits on consumer self and communal brand connection for domestic local and foreign

The Effect of Self–Brand Connection and Self-Construal on Brand Lovers’ Word of Mouth (WOM)

This study examines the impact of self-construal on the relationship between self–brand connection and brand lovers’ positive word of mouth (WOM). Our sample was composed of U.S. and Korean consumers

The Connotation, Mechanism and Effects of Self-Brand Connections

Self-brand Connections (SBC) measure the extent to which consumers have incorporated brands into their individual or social self-concept. There are two types of mechanisms that explain the formation

Determinants of brand loyalty: self-construal, self-expressive brands, and brand attachment

The purpose of this paper was to explore the relationships among self-construal, self-expressive brands, and brand attachment with an emphasis on understanding the link to brand loyalty in US college

How do self-brand connections affect ad responses among South Korean consumers? The roles of reference groups and message construals

This research explored how self-brand connections (SBCs) influence consumers’ ad responses in South Korea where collectivistic cultures, especially in-group orientations, are highly valued.

Attribution of symbolic brand meaning: the interplay of consumers, brands and reference groups

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the role played by both, self-brand connection and reference groups, in attributing symbolic meaning to a brand. Current studies focus either on the

The Effects of Self-Construal on Brand-Page Connection: A Study of Young American and Chinese Fans

This study examines what factors motivate consumers to become brand-page fans and how differences in self-construal patterns influence brand-connection factors. Based on the self-concept theory, two



You Are What They Eat: The Influence of Reference Groups on Consumers’ Connections to Brands

The set of associations consumers have about a brand is an important component of brand equity. This paper focuses on reference groups as a source of brand associations, which can be linked to one's

Culture-Dependent Assimilation and Differentiation of the Self

In two studies, we investigate how differences in self-construal patterns affect preferences for consumption symbols through the process of self-expression. The results of Study 1 demonstrate that

Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research

Although the relationship metaphor dominates contemporary marketing thought and practice, surprisingly little empirical work has been conducted on relational phenomena in the consumer products

The pleasures and pains of distinct self-construals: the role of interdependence in regulatory focus.

Support was obtained for participants who scored high versus low on the Self-Construal Scale, participants who were presented with an independent versus interdependent situation, and participants from a Western versus Eastern culture.

Reference Group Influence on Product and Brand Purchase Decisions

Consumer perceptions of reference group influence on product and brand decisions were examined using 645 members of a consumer panel and 151 respondents in a followup study. Differences for 16

The Measurement of Independent and Interdependent Self-Construals

Following concepts introduced by Markus and Kitayama, this study describes the theoretical and empirical development of a scale to measure the strength of an individual's interdependent and

The Influence of Familial and Peer-Based Reference Groups on Consumer Decisions

A replication and extension of a study performed by Bearden and Etzel are reported in this article. The influence of peers on individuals' products and brand decisions for products that range in

Who is this "We"? Levels of collective identity and self representations.

Cross-cultural perspectives have brought renewed interest in the social aspects of the self and the extent to which individuals define themselves in terms of their relationships to others and to

Who Is the Celebrity Endorser? Cultural Foundations of the Endorsement Process

This article offers a new approach to celebrity endorsement. Previous explanations, especially the source credibility and source attractiveness models are criticized, and an alternative meaning

Measurement of Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence

The development of a scale for measuring consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence is described. Consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence is hypothesized as a general trait that