Selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist (A-412997) improves cognitive performance and stimulates motor activity without influencing reward-related behaviour in rat

@article{Woolley2008SelectiveDD,
  title={Selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist (A-412997) improves cognitive performance and stimulates motor activity without influencing reward-related behaviour in rat},
  author={Marie L. Woolley and Kerry A. Waters and Charles A. Reavill and Sharlene Bull and Laurent P. Lacroix and Abbe Martyn and Daniel M. Hutcheson and Enzo Valerio and Simon T. Bate and Declan Jones and Lee A. Dawson},
  journal={Behavioural Pharmacology},
  year={2008},
  volume={19},
  pages={765-776}
}
Current therapies for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comprise psychostimulants, which block the dopamine transporter and/or stimulate the release of dopamine, leading to a global elevation in extrasynaptic dopamine. These drugs are, however, associated with a series of unwanted side effects such as insomnia, anorexia, headache, stomach problems and potential drug abuse. Recent evidence suggests that the dopamine D4 receptor may represent a selective dopamine target that could mediate… 
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References

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A-412997, a selective dopamine D4 agonist, improves cognitive performance in rats
Localization of dopamine D4 receptors in GABAergic neurons of the primate brain
TLDR
It is suggested that clozapine's beneficial effects in schizophrenia may be achieved, in part, through D4-mediated GABA modulation, possibly implicating disinhibition of excitatory transmission in intrinsic cortical, thalamocortical and extrapyramidal pathways.
Chronic lithium attenuates dopamine D1-receptor mediated increases in acetylcholine release in rat frontal cortex
TLDR
While lithium does not influence normal, arousal-related increases in cortical acetylcholine release, this ion selectively attenuates dopamine mediated increases and/or abnormally large increase, which in the present circumstances were pharmacologically induced.
Procholinergic and memory enhancing properties of the selective norepinephrine uptake inhibitor atomoxetine
TLDR
It was shown that, consistent with its cortical procholinergic and catecholamine-enhancing profile, atomoxetine significantly ameliorated performance in the object recognition test and the radial arm-maze test, and was dependent upon norepinephrine α-1 and/or dopamine D1 receptor activation.
Dopamine transporter occupancies in the human brain induced by therapeutic doses of oral methylphenidate.
TLDR
Oral methylphenidate is very effective in blocking dopamine transporters, and at the weight-adjusted doses used therapeutically (0.3 to 0.6 mg/kg), it is likely to occupy more than 50% of the dopamineTransporter.
A-412997 is a selective dopamine D4 receptor agonist in rats
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