Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus

@article{Cook2012SelectiveBP,
  title={Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus},
  author={Laurence Martin Cook and Bruce S. Grant and Ilik J. Saccheri and James Mallet},
  journal={Biology Letters},
  year={2012},
  volume={8},
  pages={609 - 612}
}
Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of melanism… Expand
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TLDR
The preliminary data suggest that bird predation can give rise to differential mortality of different pairing combinations and of the phenotypes with living females in natural resting sites, and the role of air pollution and epiphytes in industrial melanism is discussed. Expand
The understanding of industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
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It is suggested that visual selective coefficients based on a true assessment of the resting behaviour of the moths may considerably improve the fit between computer predictions and observed phenotype frequency distributions. Expand
Industrial Melanism in the Peppered Moth, Biston betularia: An Excellent Teaching Example of Darwinian Evolution in Action
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The case of industrial melanism in the peppered moth has been used as a teaching example of Darwinian natural selection in action for half a century. However, over the last decade, this case has comeExpand
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TLDR
Previous surveys of American peppered moth populations are extended and a composite picture of the recent decline in melanism in northern industrial states-Michigan and Pennsylvania-where melanic phenotypes decreased from more than 90% in 1959 to 6% by 2001 is presented. Expand
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TLDR
A system under strong selection that has always been in a dynamic state without equilibria is indicated, and experiments to investigate predation by birds show a net advantage to carbonaria morphs in regions where typical frequencies were low at the time of the experiment, and a disadvantage where Typical frequencies were high. Expand
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TLDR
The industrial melanism of the Lepidoptera is the most striking evolutionary change ever actually witnessed in any organ. Expand
Industrial Melanism in British Peppered Moths Has a Singular and Recent Mutational Origin
TLDR
The locus responsible for the dark form of the peppered moth is identified and genetically mapped the carbonaria morph to a 200-kilobase region orthologous to a segment of silkworm chromosome 17 and shows that there is only one core sequence variant associated with thecarbonaria morph, carrying a signature of recent strong selection. Expand
On the selective forces acting in the industrial melanism of Biston and Oligia moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae and Noctuidae)
Melanic and typical morphs of Biston betularius (L.), Oligia latruncula (D. & S.) and 0. strigilis (L.) made choices between vertical trunks and horizontal branches, sprayed with white and blackExpand
Selection and gene flow on a diminishing cline of melanic peppered moths
TLDR
The historical perspective afforded by this study of cline reversal provides new insight into the factors contributing to gene frequency change in this species, and it serves to illustrate that, even under conditions of high dispersal and strong reverse selection acting against it, complete erosion of an established cline requires many generations. Expand
Further selection experiments on industrial melanism in the Lepidoptera
TLDR
The results of extensive mark-release-recapture experiments undertaken in 1953 on the Peppered Moth, Biston betularia Linn, and its two melanic forms may be summarised as follows. Expand
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