The plasma membrane of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (strain KH3J) contains over 160 polypeptides with apparent molecular masses ranging from 14 to 125 kDa and isoelectric point values (pIs) from 5 to 9. In vivo labeling with [14C]-fatty acids revealed about 35 acylated polypeptides including the two major components p42 and p65 and displaying pIs between 5.5 and 9.0, with a majority between 6.5 and 8. The amphiphilic nature of most of these acyl proteins was confirmed by Triton X-114 phase partitioning. Gas-liquid chromatography analyses showed that the order of preference for protein acylation was 16:0 > 18:2c > 18:1c > 18:0 > 14:0, with 16:0 being the major O-ester-bound fatty acyl chain and 18:2c the major N-linked chain. The presence of S-glycerylcysteine and a ratio of [O-ester-bound acyl chains + N-linked chains]/O-ester bound chains of ≈ 1.2 in M. mycoides subsp. mycoides SC membrane proteins are consistent with a lipid modification similar to that occurring in lipoproteins of Gram-negative eubacteria that contain an N-terminal acyl S-glycerylcysteine.