Selectin inhibition modulates Akt/MAPK signaling and chemokine expression after liver ischemia-reperfusion.


Tissue damage after ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) is largely caused by the sequelae of neutrophil infiltration. This inflammatory process can be initiated as the result of stroke, coronary ischemia, trauma, and other related conditions. The infiltration of neutrophils is facilitated by the expression of adhesion molecules on the surface of endothelial cells. Particularly important are the selectin family of adhesion molecules at the onset of neutrophil-mediated injury. The aim of this study was to determine the role of selectin inhibition in the modulation of chemokine expression and Akt/MAPK signaling after liver I/R. In addition, we evaluated the optimal dose and time of administration of a small molecule selectin inhibitor, TBC-1269. Mice subjected to 90 min of partial (70-80%) hepatic ischemia followed by 3 h of reperfusion were divided into 15 groups (n = 4/group); sham, ischemic control, and 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg dose groups for the antiselectin molecule were studied at 3 times of drug administration: 1 h before reperfusion (but after ischemia), at the time of reperfusion, and at 15 min after reperfusion. The parameters measured after 3 h of reperfusion included liver function tests (ALT and AST), histopathology, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO). Chemokine expression (MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MIP-2 and KC), Akt, MAPK (p44/p42), and RSK expressions were also measured in liver tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis, respectively. It was demonstrated that the small molecule multi-selectin inhibitor (TBC-1269) offered the most significant protection for the ischemic liver when given at 40 mg/kg at the time ofreperfusion. AST significantly differed between the control group and the group receiving 40 mg/kg at the time of reperfusion (p = .01). MPO levels in the liver tissue of the ischemic controls were significantly increased when compared to the levels of this enzyme in the TBC-1269 group at 40 mg/kg. Histological examination reflected the same results, with a significant difference (p = .02) between these same two groups. The chemokine profile also showed that the same treatment group had a downregulation of MIP-lalpha, MIP-1beta, MIP-2, and KC, as well as a lower expression of Akt, MAPK(p44/42), and RSK when compared to the control group. Thus, we demonstrated that the small molecule selectin inhibitor, TBC-1269, offered significant functional and structural protection of the ischemic liver when given at 40 mg/kg at the time of reperfusion. Lower doses and different times of administration did not show as prominent a drug effect. This selectin inhibition modulated the expression of Akt, MAPK (p44/42), and RSK, as well as MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, MIP-2, and KC chemokines. These alterations in cellular signaling and chemokine expression represent potential mechanisms or pathways of inflammatory response in I/R.

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@article{ToledoPereyra2004SelectinIM, title={Selectin inhibition modulates Akt/MAPK signaling and chemokine expression after liver ischemia-reperfusion.}, author={Luis H. Toledo-Pereyra and Fernando L{\'o}pez-Neblina and Jayne S Reuben and Alexander Horacio Toledo and Peter A Ward}, journal={Journal of investigative surgery : the official journal of the Academy of Surgical Research}, year={2004}, volume={17 6}, pages={303-13} }