Seeking the boundary of boundary extension

  title={Seeking the boundary of boundary extension},
  author={Benjamin A. McDunn and Aisha Siddiqui and James M. Brown},
  journal={Psychonomic Bulletin \& Review},
Boundary extension (BE) is a remarkably consistent visual memory error in which participants remember seeing a more wide-angle image of a scene than was actually viewed (Intraub & Richardson, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15:179–187, 1989). Multiple stimulus factors are thought to contribute to the occurrence of BE, including object recognition, conceptual knowledge of scenes, and amodal perception at the view boundaries (Intraub, Wiley Interdisciplinary… 
An influence of extremal edges on boundary extension
The findings support and highlight the importance of amodal continuation at the view boundaries at the borders’ view boundaries as a component of boundary extension.
No imagination effect on boundary extension
Robust BE was found in all experiments, but none of the elaborations modified the size of BE; therefore, BE is not to be affected by explicit elaboration and may be related to spatial rather than visual imagery ability.
Boundary extension: Insights from signal detection theory.
The results support the idea that participants' responses reflect false memory beyond the view (i.e., a more wide-angle view of the world) and refute the hypothesis that boundary extension was due solely to participants' response bias to label test pictures as more wide -angled.
The role of context on boundary extension
ABSTRACT Boundary extension (BE) is a memory error in which observers remember more of a scene than they actually viewed. This error reflects one’s prediction that a scene naturally continues and is
Predictive processing of scene layout depends on naturalistic depth of field
Boundary extension (BE) is a classic memory illusion in which observers remember more of a scene than was presented. According to predictive processing accounts, BE reflects the integration of visual
Anticipatory scene representation in preschool children's recall and recognition memory.
It is proposed that like adults, children interpret photographs as views of places in the world; they extrapolate the anticipated continuation of the scene beyond the view and misattribute it to having been seen.
Does inversion affect boundary extension for briefly-presented views?
ABSTRACT Inverting scenes interferes with visual perception and memory on many tasks. Might scene inversion eliminate boundary extension (BE) for briefly-presented photographs? In Experiment 1, an
Increasing task demand by obstructing object recognition increases boundary extension
It is demonstrated that poorer encoding of main objects in scenes leads to increased BE, but trial-by-trial recognition accuracy had no relationship to BE magnitude.
The role of arousal in boundary judgement errors
The data suggest that arousal plays a key role in boundary judgements, and whether arousal is the element of an emotional scene that leads to increased boundary restriction or reduced boundary extension is investigated.
Reply to Intraub


Boundary Extension for Briefly Glimpsed Photographs: Do Common Perceptual Processes Result in Unexpected Memory Distortions?
Abstract “Boundary extension” is a memory illusion in which observers remember seeing more of a scene than was shown. Two experiments tested the possibility that this spatial distortion occurs soon
Wide-angle memories of close-up scenes.
A picture-memory phenomenon in which subjects' recall and recognition of photographed scenes reveal a pronounced extension of the pictures' boundaries is reported, demonstrating the importance of more widespread use of open-ended tests in picture- memory methodology.
Looking at pictures but remembering scenes.
Three alternate explanations were tested: object completion, distortion toward a perceptual schema, and normalization toward a prototypic view; a two-component model of picture processing is proposed.
Boundary extension: fundamental aspect of pictorial representation or encoding artifact?
  • H. Intraub, J. Bodamer
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition
  • 1993
The phenomenon of viewers seeing more of a scene than was actually depicted in a photograph, a phenomenon called boundary extension, is suggested to reflect activation of scene expectations during perception.
Effects of perceiving and imagining scenes on memory for pictures.
Results suggest that scene perception and imagination activate the same schematic representation, a representation of the expected scene structure outside the view that is similar to a perceptual schema.
False Memory 1/20th of a Second Later
An alternative conceptualization is offered that shows how source monitoring can explain false memory after an interruption briefer than an eyeblink, and the brevity of these interruptions has implications for visual scanning.
Surface construal and the mental representation of scenes.
  • C. Gottesman, H. Intraub
  • Psychology, Art
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 2002
It is proposed that amodal continuation is a fundamental aspect of scene perception and not all pictures are scenes--only pictures construed as depicting a truncated view of a continuous world.
Transsaccadic representation of layout: what is the time course of boundary extension?
Results show that boundary extension is available soon enough and is robust enough to play an on-line role in view integration, perhaps supporting incorporation of views within a larger spatial framework.
Beyond the edges of a picture.
Viewers remember having seen a greater expanse of a scene than was shown in a photograph: an error called boundary extension. Two experiments examined the cause of the distortion by presenting 303