Seeing Disorder: Neighborhood Stigma and the Social Construction of “Broken Windows”

@article{Sampson2004SeeingDN,
  title={Seeing Disorder: Neighborhood Stigma and the Social Construction of “Broken Windows”},
  author={Robert J. Sampson and Stephen Raudenbush},
  journal={Social Psychology Quarterly},
  year={2004},
  volume={67},
  pages={319 - 342}
}
This article reveals the grounds on which individuals form perceptions of disorder. Integrating ideas about implicit bias and statistical discrimination with a theoretical framework on neighborhood racial stigma, our empirical test brings together personal interviews, census data, police records, and systematic social observations situated within some 500 block groups in Chicago. Observed disorder predicts perceived disorder, but racial and economic context matter more. As the concentration of… 

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