Seed dispersal limitations shift over time in tropical forest restoration.

  title={Seed dispersal limitations shift over time in tropical forest restoration.},
  author={J. Leighton Reid and Karen D. Holl and Rakan A. Zahawi},
  journal={Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America},
  volume={25 4},
  • J. L. ReidK. HollR. Zahawi
  • Published 1 June 2015
  • Environmental Science
  • Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America
Past studies have shown that tropical forest regeneration on degraded farmlands is initially limited by lack of seed dispersal, but few studies have tracked changes in abundance and composition of seed rain past the first few years after land abandonment. We measured seed rain for 12 months in 10 6-9-year-old restoration sites and five mature, reference forests in southern Costa Rica in order to learn (1) if seed rain limitation persists past the first few years of regeneration; (2) how… 

Effects of dispersal- and niche-based factors on tree recruitment in tropical wet forest restoration.

Investigating factors influencing tree recruitment after a decade of recovery in a tropical wet forest restoration experiment in southern Costa Rica found evidence that barriers to recruitment shift during succession, with the influence of seed limitation, specifically mediated by species-level seed deposition rates, giving way to niche-based processes.

Plant Attributes that Drive Dispersal and Establishment Limitation in Tropical Agricultural Landscapes

To overcome barriers to natural succession in pastures, transplanting seedlings of non-pioneer species is suggested because most of them show high dispersal and establishment limitation.

Enhancing Plant Diversity in Secondary Forests

A crucial finding of this study was that the buried seeds of all species germinated and had relatively high survival irrespective of variation in site conditions or successional status, suggesting that seed availability may be a greater barrier to recovery of secondary forests in the region than the establishment limitations imposed by environmental conditions.

Local tropical forest restoration strategies affect tree recruitment more strongly than does landscape forest cover

Summary Developing restoration strategies that accelerate natural successional processes and are resource-efficient is critical to facilitating tropical forest recovery across millions of hectares

Seedling Recruitment of Native Tree Species in Active Restoration Forest

This study confirms that the framework species method of forest restoration is limited by availability of seed sources in the immediate vicinity of restoration sites, and it is recommended that rare tree species, characteristic of the target forest ecosystem, and those with large seeds, should be added to the mix of framework tree species planted, to enhance species diversity and result in better restoration outcomes.

Successional, spatial, and seasonal changes in seed rain in the Atlantic forest of southern Bahia, Brazil

It is found that secondary forest age had strong, positive effects on the diversity of seed rain, which was generally higher during the wet season and contrasting patterns among diversity indices revealed that seeds of rare species occurred more often in 40 yr old secondary forests and mature forests.

Successional trajectories of seed dispersal mode and seed size of canopy tree species in wet tropical forests

Despite the critical role of seed dispersal for tree colonization during forest succession in wet tropical forests, successional trajectories of seed dispersal modes are poorly documented at the

Multi‐scale habitat selection of key frugivores predicts large‐seeded tree recruitment in tropical forest restoration

Large-seeded, animal-dispersed (LSAD) trees include some of the most valuable and threatened species in the tropics, but they are chronically underrepresented in regenerating forests. Toucans



Seed Availability as a Limiting Factor in Forest Recovery Processes in Costa Rica

It is hypothesized that seed availability is a major limiting factor in forest recovery on abandoned pastures, and enlarging the available pool of species may be a worthwhile management strategy.

Testing heterogeneity–diversity relationships in tropical forest restoration

Results show that planting tree islands facilitates tree recruitment to a similar degree as intensive plantation-style restoration strategies, and that seed dispersal limitation likely reduces the available species pool.

Early seed fall and seedling emergence: precursors to tropical restoration

Processes of seed immigration and seedling recruitment before an experimental rainforest restoration matures enough to affect either are explored, indicating a legacy of attraction by fruiting trees of animals bearing seeds from distant sources and multi-modal and decidedly non-random recruitment of pioneer and later successional animal-dispersed trees from seed banks.

Seed rain under tree islands planted to restore degraded lands in a tropical agricultural landscape.

  • R. ColeK. HollR. Zahawi
  • Environmental Science
    Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America
  • 2010
Establishing plantations and large islands facilitates the arrival of early-successional tree seeds and represents a broadly applicable strategy for increasing seed rain on abandoned agricultural lands, however, more intensive restoration approaches may be necessary for establishment of dispersal-limited species.

Litterfall Dynamics Under Different Tropical Forest Restoration Strategies in Costa Rica

This planting design promotes a more rapid increase in litter diversity and more spatial heterogeneity, which can accelerate the rate of nutrient cycling and facilitate forest recovery.

Planting Design Effects on Avian Seed Dispersers in a Tropical Forest Restoration Experiment

Results indicate that plantation-style planting is the conservative strategy to maximize attractiveness to common dispersers in tropical restoration sites and island planting is an alternative when resources are limited although disperser activity may be lower in some seasons than in plantations.

Tropical forest restoration: tree islands as recruitment foci in degraded lands of Honduras.

  • R. ZahawiC. Augspurger
  • Biology, Medicine
    Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America
  • 2006
Planting vegetative stakes to create tree islands in pastures accelerates forest recovery by overcoming a number of impediments, and presents a simple, broadly applicable alternative for facilitating forest regeneration in abandoned pastures.

Postdispersal Seed Fate of Tropical Montane Trees in an Agricultural Landscape, Southern Costa Rica

Seeds survived through germination more often in secondary forests with high levels of mortality occurring in abandoned pastures and forest fragments, and seed removal is not a reliable proxy for seed predation, particularly in less degraded forest fragments.