Seed Chemistry of Sophora chrysophylla (Mamane) in Relation to Diet of Specialist Avian Seed Predator Loxioides bailleui (Palila) in Hawaii

  title={Seed Chemistry of Sophora chrysophylla (Mamane) in Relation to Diet of Specialist Avian Seed Predator Loxioides bailleui (Palila) in Hawaii},
  author={Paul C. Banko and Martin L. Cipollini and G{\'e}rard Breton and Eric Paulk and Michael Wink and Ido Izhaki},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
This study describes the chemical ecology of a tritrophic interaction among species endemic to the island of Hawaii, USA: a tree (Sophora chrysophylla: mamane), an endangered bird (Loxioides bailleui; palila), and moth larvae (Cydia spp. [] Key Result Our data show that mamane embryos contain high amounts of potentially toxic alkaloids, but are well balanced nutritionally and contain lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, and minerals at levels that are likely to be sufficient for maintenance and…

Habitat and food preferences of the endangered Palila (Loxioides bailleui) on Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i

Seeds and flowers of the leguminous māmane tree are the primary food resource of the federally endangered Palila, which is now restricted to dry subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea Volcano on the island of Hawai‘i because of centuries of habitat degradation by non-native ungulates.

Tolerance to dietary phenolics and diet breadth in three seed-eating birds: implications for Graminivory.

Assessment of tolerance to dietary phenolics in three seed-eating birds suggests that Zonotrichia capensis is the most tolerant species and this physiological trait may explain their greater diet breadth.

S15-2 Food specialization and radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers

Historically, most species fed their nestlings with larvae of the widespread geometrid moth genus, Scotorythra; but other invertebrates were important also, and this contributed to reproductive isolation in Loxioides and possibly other honeycreepers.

Parrots Eat Nutritious Foods despite Toxins

Parrots represent a remarkable example of a generalist herbivore that consumes seeds destructively despite plant chemical defenses, and exploited a diversity of nutritious foods, even in the dry season when food was scarce for other frugivores and granivores.

Palatability and feeding preferences of Uresiphita maorialis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) for three Sophora species

These results support the field observations in Wellington city parks and gardens showing that S. tetraptera and S. microphylla plants frequently have higher densities of larvae than S. prostrata.


The radio-carbon chronology of the Makauwahi site indicates that the species became extinct in the late Holocene and, more tentatively, that it may have survived well beyond the time when humans first discovered and colonized Kaua’i.

Nutritional and defensive properties of Fagaceae nuts dispersed by animals: a multiple species study

The congruence between phylogenetic tree and seed trait cladogram indicated conservative evolution of seed traits, and Fagaceae nuts with high nutrition tended to invest more energy into physical defenses, indicating that the trade-off between chemical and physical defenses might be seed size dependent across plant species.

Test of biotic and abiotic correlates of latitudinal variation in defences in the perennial herb Ruellia nudiflora

Variation in the abiotic environment was associated with plant defence, indicating that abiotic factors can play a major role in shaping plant defences, independently of herbivory.

Effects of Nutritional and Anti-Nutritional Properties of Seeds on the Feeding Ecology of Seed-Eating Birds of the Monte Desert, Argentina

Results suggest that most graminivorous birds prefer high-starch diets and avoid diets with phenols and alkaloids, and that seed chemistry may explain some important features of seed selection by birds in the Monte desert.

Importance of quinolizidine alkaloids in the relationship between larvae ofUresiphita reversalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and a host plant,Genista monspessulana

Alkaloid levels in larvae and in their frass were proportional to levels in the plants on which they fed, and that which was sequestered by the insect was found entirely in the integument, possibly confering some protection from predators.

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids as larval feeding deterrents for spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

Senkirkine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, is to the authors' knowledge the first member of this class of compounds shown to have feeding deterrent activity in Lepidoptera.

Effects of dietary protein and lupine alkaloids on growth and survivorship ofSpodoptera eridania

The effects of casein were determined by other dietary components: increased dietary casein led to increased larval growth only when the diet was also high in wheat germ, and the interaction between alkaloids and casein was significant only in the low-wheat-germ diets.

Chemical Defense of Lupins. Mollusc-Repellent Properties of Quinolizidine Alkaloids

Quinolizidine alkaloids constitute a potential antimolluscan principle of legumes because the in vivo concentrations of sparteine, cytisine, and lupanine are equal to or higher than the inhibitory concentrations required.

Status and management of the Palila, an endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, 1987-1996

Recovery efforts now focus on reducing numbers of feral ungulates, fire management, removing mammalian predators, and developing techniques for captive propagation and introduction to currently unoccupied sites within the bird's former range.

Interrelationship between Quinolizidine Alkaloid Producing Legumes and Infesting Insects: Exploitation of the Alkaloid- Containing Phloem Sap of Cytisus scoparius by the Broom Aphid Aphis cytisorum

The accumulation of alkaloids in aphids indicates that the quinolizidine alkaloid are translocated via the phloem in legume plants, and this assumption is supported by direct evidence: analysis ofphloem sap from Lupinus contains up to 5 mg alkaloidal whereas xylem sap is virtually free of alkAloids.

Deterring and Inhibiting Effects of Quinolizidine Alkaloids on Spruce Budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Oviposition

These results are the 1st demonstration of the behaviorally deterring and physiologically inhibiting effects of quinolizidine alkaloids on lepidopteran oviposition.

Drepanidine movements in relation to food availability in subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

Flowers of the miimane tree (Sophwu chqmphylla) are the primary nectar source for Hawaiian honeycreepers in subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea Volcano on the island of Hawai‘i. Mamane seeds are the

Chemical Defense of Leguminosae. Are Quinolizidine Alkaloids Part of the Antimicrobial Defense System of Lupins?

It is discussed whether quinolizidine alkaloids are involved in the antimicrobial defense of lupins, in addition to their potential role as allelopathic or herbivore repellent defense compounds.

Modes of Action of Alkaloids

In order to fulfill this function, alkaloids must closely interact with specific targets in herbivores, predators, microorganisms, or competing plants, i.e., they must either inhibit or otherwise deregulate important processes that are vital for these organisms.