See what you want to see: motivational influences on visual perception.

@article{Balcetis2006SeeWY,
  title={See what you want to see: motivational influences on visual perception.},
  author={Emily Balcetis and David Dunning},
  journal={Journal of personality and social psychology},
  year={2006},
  volume={91 4},
  pages={
          612-25
        }
}
People's motivational states--their wishes and preferences--influence their processing of visual stimuli. In 5 studies, participants shown an ambiguous figure (e.g., one that could be seen either as the letter B or the number 13) tended to report seeing the interpretation that assigned them to outcomes they favored. This finding was affirmed by unobtrusive and implicit measures of perception (e.g., eye tracking, lexical decision tasks) and by experimental procedures demonstrating that… Expand

Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper

Seeing the Expected, the Desired, and the Feared: Influences on Perceptual Interpretation and Directed Attention
Though people often believe their visual experiences reflect the objective state of the surrounding world, a wealth of recent evidence suggests that perceptions are systematically biased. We drawExpand
Evidence of Motivational Influences in Early Visual Perception
TLDR
This study aimed to test whether motivation can also penetrate and guide early visual processing, and expected that participants who had fasted and were therefore motivated by food would be more likely than satiated participants to perceive masked food-related words. Expand
You Don’t See What I See: Individual Differences in the Perception of Meaning from Visual Stimuli
TLDR
The observed reductions in sensitivity along with increased response bias toward seeing something that is not there, indirectly implicated subtle neurophysiological differences associated with the personality dimension of schizotypy, that are theoretically pertinent to the continuum of schizophrenia and hallucination-proneness. Expand
Pupil-Linked Arousal Biases Evidence Accumulation Toward Desirable Percepts During Perceptual Decision-Making
TLDR
Increased arousal biases people toward what they want to see and away from an objective representation of the environment, as measured by pupil dilation, which is associated with making motivationally biased responses. Expand
A Primer on the Psychology of Cognitive Bias
Psychological research has consistently demonstrated how our perceptions and cognitions are affected by context, motivation, expectation, and experience. Factors extraneous to the content of theExpand
Wishful Seeing
TLDR
It is suggested that seeing desirable objects as closer than less desirable objects serves the self-regulatory function of energizing the perceiver to approach objects that fulfill needs and goals. Expand
Neurocomputational mechanisms underlying motivated seeing
TLDR
A neurocomputational approach is taken to demonstrate that motivational effects on perceptual judgements reflect a bias in both response and perception, and provides a computational description of how the drive for reward leads to inaccurate representations of the world. Expand
Pupil-linked arousal biases evidence accumulation towards desirable percepts during perceptual decision-making
TLDR
It is found that heightened arousal, as measured by larger pupils, was associated with a bias in how participants accumulated sensory evidence to make their decisions, and that modulating arousal levels could be a promising approach in reducing motivational biases in decision-making. Expand
Cognition does not affect perception: Evaluating the evidence for “top-down” effects
TLDR
This work suggests that none of these hundreds of studies – either individually or collectively – provides compelling evidence for true top-down effects on perception, or “cognitive penetrability,” and suggests that these studies all fall prey to only a handful of pitfalls. Expand
You are what I feel: A test of the affective realism hypothesis.
TLDR
Evidence for the affective realism hypothesis, that incidental affect is a key ingredient in an individual's experience of the world, is presented, that consciously perceived neutral faces were experienced significantly more positively when concurrently paired with suppressed smiling faces than when concurrently pair with suppressed scowling faces. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 104 REFERENCES
There Is No Naked Eye: Higher-Order Social Concepts Clothe Visual Perception
TLDR
5 studies contend that complex, social information significantly influences visual perception and demonstrate the influence of complex information on perception of ambiguous figures but of stimuli that approximate visually rich, natural scenes as well as less contrived priming techniques. Expand
Predicting the orientation of invisible stimuli from activity in human primary visual cortex
TLDR
It is shown that even at conventional resolutions it is possible to use fMRI to obtain a direct measure of orientation-selective processing in V1 and to successfully predict which one of two oriented stimuli a participant was viewing, even when masking rendered that stimulus invisible. Expand
Reversible-figure perception: Mechanisms of intentional control
  • T. Toppino
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Perception & psychophysics
  • 2003
TLDR
The results indicate that intentional control over perception can be exerted independently of focal-feature processing, perhaps by top-down activation or priming of perceptual representations. Expand
Priming is not necessary for selective-attention failures: Semantic effects of unattended, unprimed letters
  • J. Miller
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Perception & psychophysics
  • 1987
TLDR
The Eriksen-Eriksen effect provides an example of semantic processing of unattended stimuli that have not been primed by either task relevance or long-term relevance, and is of interest as a example of associative learning that is both incidental and apparently unconscious. Expand
On the relationship between visual imagery and visual perception: Evidence from priming studies
Two priming experiments using a perceptual identification task were conducted to explore the functional and representational overlap between visual imagery and visual perception. The first experimentExpand
Objectivity in the eye of the beholder: divergent perceptions of bias in self versus others.
TLDR
Evidence of this asymmetry between self-perception and social perception and its underlying causes is reviewed and its relation to other psychological phenomena and to interpersonal and intergroup conflict is discussed. Expand
Enduring interest in perceptual ambiguity: alternating views of reversible figures.
TLDR
Research favoring the so-called bottom-up and top-down classes of explanations for reversible figures that dominated the literature in last half of the 20th century is reviewed and the utility of distinguishing between 2 components of the observer's experience with reversible figures is emphasized. Expand
Is vision continuous with cognition? The case for cognitive impenetrability of visual perception.
  • Z. Pylyshyn
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • The Behavioral and brain sciences
  • 1999
TLDR
The paper discusses arguments from computer vision and psychology showing that vision is "intelligent" and involves elements of "problem solving" and examines a number of examples where instructions and "hints" are alleged to affect what is seen. Expand
To reverse or not to reverse: when is an ambiguous figure not ambiguous?
TLDR
The role of bottom-up processes in the perception of reversible figures was examined and the crucial role of stimulus and procedural variables and the differential sensitivity of the two dependent measures was demonstrated. Expand
Decoding the visual and subjective contents of the human brain
TLDR
It is found that ensemble fMRI signals in early visual areas could reliably predict on individual trials which of eight stimulus orientations the subject was seeing, when subjects had to attend to one of two overlapping orthogonal gratings. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...