Sedatives and hypnotics

  title={Sedatives and hypnotics},
  author={Parna Haghparast and Michael Pondrom and Sidhartha D. Ray},
  journal={Side Effects of Drugs Annual},
1 Citations

Sedatives and hypnotics

A review of the 2020 publications provides further insight to contribute to the currently available literature and can be found in previous SEDA publications.



Effects of steady-state clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics of zolpidem in healthy subjects.

The experimental data demonstrate the significant pharmacokinetic interaction between zolpidem and clarithromycin at steady-state and elimination half-life of zolPidem was 1.40-fold longer during co-administration with clarityromycin and its apparent oral clearance was 36.2% lower with claritromycin administration.

Adverse Events Associated with Melatonin for the Treatment of Primary or Secondary Sleep Disorders: A Systematic Review

There are insufficient robust data to allow a meaningful appraisal of concerns that melatonin may result in more clinically significant adverse effects in potentially at-risk populations, and the scarcity of evidence from long-term RCTs limits the conclusions regarding the safety of continuous melatonin therapy over extended periods.

Benzodiazepine Use Is Associated With an Increased Risk of Neurocognitive Impairment in People Living With HIV.

BZD use may elevate risk for NCI in PLWH, potentially through diffuse neurocognitive slowing and acute compromise of recall and higher-order capacities.

Distinct effects of orexin receptor antagonist and GABAA agonist on sleep and physical/cognitive functions after forced awakening

It is found that, compared with the GABA receptor agonist brotizolam, the orexin receptor antagonist suvorexant induced less impairment in body balance after taking the medicine, and there was no significant difference in the total z score of performance between suvorxant and placebo.

Influence of midazolam-related genetic polymorphism on conscious sedation during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a Korean population

Genetic polymorphism of MDR1 influences the concentration of midazolam and the sedation grade, however, it is not associated with adverse reactions such as paradoxical response and retrograde amnesia.

Adverse Events Due to Insomnia Drugs Reported in a Regulatory Database and Online Patient Reviews: Comparative Study

It is concluded that online patient reviews of hypnotics are a valid source that can supplement traditional adverse event reporting systems and is influenced by considerations of efficacy and adverse events, while drug cost is unimportant.

Prediction of Drug–Drug Interactions Between Opioids and Overdosed Benzodiazepines Using Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic (PBPK) Modeling and Simulation

The results appear to indicate that pharmacodynamics may play a more important role than PKs in causing DDIs between opioids and benzodiazepines, and that molecular modeling can be a very useful tool to mitigate the problem of “missing metabolic reaction parameters” in PK modeling and simulation.

A Randomized, Crossover, Pharmacokinetics Evaluation of a Novel Continuous Release and Absorption Melatonin Formulation.

The novel, well-tolerated CRA-melatonin was shown to achieve quick release and then continuous release and absorption of melatonin for up to 7 hours, making it a significant advancement in the pharmacokinetic release profile of exogenous melatonin delivery and, therefore, an important potential consideration as a baseline therapy for sleep.

Use of short-acting and long-acting hypnotics and the risk of fracture: a critical analysis of associations in a nationwide cohort

It was showed that the highest risk of fracture was found before start of treatment and remained after end of therapy, suggesting that the increased risk during treatment is influenced by other factors, such as underlying disease.