Secular total solar irradiance trend during solar cycles 21–23

  title={Secular total solar irradiance trend during solar cycles 21–23},
  author={Richard C. Willson and Alexander V. Mordvinov},
  journal={Geophysical Research Letters},
A series of satellite total solar irradiance (TSI) observations can be combined in a precise solar magnetic cycle length composite TSI database by determining the relationship between two non‐overlapping components: ACRIM1 and ACRIM2. [ Willson and Hudson, 1991 ; Willson, 1994 ] An ACRIM composite TSI time series using the Nimbus7/ERB results [ Hoyt et al., 1992 ] to relate ACRIM1 and ACRIM2 demonstrates a secular upward trend of 0.05 percent‐per‐decade between consecutive solar activity minima… 
Solar total irradiance in cycle 23
Context. The most recent minimum of solar activity was deeper and longer than the previous two minima as indicated by different proxies of solar activity. This is also true for the total solar
ACRIM total solar irradiance satellite composite validation versus TSI proxy models
The satellite total solar irradiance (TSI) database provides a valuable record for investigating models of solar variation used to interpret climate changes. The 35-year ACRIM total solar irradiance
Long-Term Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Variability Trends: 1984-2004
The incoming total solar irradiance (TSI), typically referred to as the solar constant, is being studied to identify long-term TSI changes, which may trigger global climate changes. The TSI is
Total Solar Irradiance: What Have We Learned from the Last Three Cycles and the Recent Minimum?
The record of total solar irradiance (TSI) during the past 35 years shows similarities of the three solar cycles, but also important differences. During the recent minimum with an unusually long
Comparison of Decadal Trends among Total Solar Irradiance Composites of Satellite Observations
We present a new analysis of the two-decade-old controversy over interpretation of satellite observations of total solar irradiance (TSI) since 1978 and the implications of our findings for TSI as a
Total Solar Irradiance Observations
The record of total solar irradiance (TSI) during the past 35 years has overlapping observations from space which can be merged to a composite, and three are available, namely the PMOD, the ACRIM and
Periodicity of Total Solar Irradiance
We investigate the periodicity in the PMOD composite of the daily total solar irradiance (TSI) from 21 September 1978 to 9 June 2009. Besides the Schwabe cycle period (10.32 years), the
Total solar irradiance since 1996: is there a long-term variation unrelated to solar surface magnetic phenomena?
Context. Total solar irradiance (TSI) has been measured with space-based instruments since 1978. The TSI during the recent solar minimum in 2009 has been lower than the two former minima around the
Total Solar Irradiance Measurement and Modelling during Cycle 23
Abstract During solar cycle 23, which is now close to its end, variations of the total solar irradiance were measured by six different instruments, providing four independent time series of the
Evidence of a long-term trend in total solar irradiance
Aims. During the solar minimum of 2008, the value of total solar irradiance at 1 AU (TSI) was more than 0.2 Wm -2 lower than during the last minimum in 1996, indicating for the first time a directly


Solar luminosity variations in solar cycle 21
The ACRIM I experiment (Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor) on the solar maximum Mission (SMM) satellite has provided a nearly continuous record of solar total irradiance variations since
Long-term total solar irradiance variability during sunspot cycle 22
Total solar irradiance measurements from the 1984-1993 Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) active cavity radiometer and 1978-1993 Nimbus 7 transfer cavity radiometer spacecraft experiments are
The Sun's total irradiance: Cycles, trends and related climate change uncertainties since 1976
A composite record of the Sun's total irradiance compiled from measurements made by five independent space‐based radiometers since 1978 exhibits a prominent 11‐year cycle with similar levels during
The Sun's total irradiance at the mean Sun-Earth distance decreased from mid-1979 to mid-1987 during the descending part of solar cycle 21. After the minimum had been reached it increased with the
Total Solar Irradiance Trend During Solar Cycles 21 and 22
Results from Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) experiments show an upward trend in total solar irradiance of 0.036 percent per decade between the minima of solar cycles 21 and 22.
The Sun's luminosity over a complete solar cycle
THE Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM I), an instrument carried on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission satellite, measured the Sun's luminosity (total power outflow) from early 1980 to late
The Nimbus 7 solar total irradiance: A new algorithm for its derivation
The Nimbus 7 satellite has measured the solar total irradiance from November 1978 to July 1991 (153 months). These measurements are important both in solar physics and for climate change. To insure
Long-Term Downward Trend in Total Solar Irradiance
The first 5 years of total solar irradiance observations by the first Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM I) experiment show a clearly defined downward trend, which appears to be due to unpredicted variations of solar luminosity on time scales of years, and it may be related to solar cycle magnetic activity.
Time‐frequency analysis of total solar irradiance variations
Continuous wavelet analysis of the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) time series accurately describes its non‐stationary, multi‐scale variations over a wide time‐scale domain. The analysis was also
Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change
Solar total and ultraviolet (UV) irradiances are reconstructed annually from 1610 to the present. This epoch includes the Maunder Minimum of anomalously low solar activity (circa 1645-1715) and the