Secular Evolution and the Formation of Pseudobulges in Disk Galaxies

@article{Kormendy2004SecularEA,
  title={Secular Evolution and the Formation of Pseudobulges in Disk Galaxies},
  author={John Kormendy and Robert C. Kennicutt},
  journal={Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics},
  year={2004},
  volume={42},
  pages={603-683}
}
▪ Abstract The Universe is in transition. At early times, galactic evolution was dominated by hierarchical clustering and merging, processes that are violent and rapid. In the far future, evolution will mostly be secular—the slow rearrangement of energy and mass that results from interactions involving collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure, and triaxial dark halos. Both processes are important now. This review discusses internal secular evolution, concentrating on one… 

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