The secretory cells of the oviductal epithelium in the pig-tailed monkey, Macaca nemestrina, have been studied by light and electron microscopy. Changes during the menstrual cycle and after ovariectomy, with and without subsequent estrogen treatment, have been documented. During the early follicular phase the epithelium is recovering from deciliation and secretory cell atrophy that occur in the late luteal phase. A few fimbrial and a moderate number of ampullar and isthmic cells contain a few electron-dense, homogeneous secretory granules in their apical cytoplasm. During the late preovulatory and early post-ovulatory periods, secretory cell structure varies considerably. Fimbrial cells typically display apical protrusions that contain no or a few small, mainly homogeneous, secretory granules. The cytoplasm is crowded with elements of the Golgi complex, with granular endoplasmic reticulum profiles often intimately associated with mitochondria, and with variable numbers of polysomes and glycogen granules. In ampullar and isthmic cells secretory granules are more abundant than in fimbrial cells, and electron-lucent vacuoles appear. The granules are of two types: 1) those having an electron-dense, homogeneous matrix, and 2) those possessing lamellar structures within moderately dense matrices. The lamellae of the second type course in parallel arrays separated by a distance of approximately 15.5 nm and exhibit a periodicity of approximately 11.3 nm. Possible transitional stages between the lamellar granules and the vacuoles containing lamellar fragments are observed. Secretion occurs by exocytosis. During the late luteal phase no fimbrial cells have secretory granules. In the ampulla many of the cells have poor development of the organelles involved in secretory activity and have few or no secretory granules. In others, a moderate number of secretory granules are present; in one animal, exocytosis is observed. In the untreated ovariectomized animal no secretory granules occur, and the organelle content is much less than in the cycling and the estrogen-treated monkeys. In ovariectomized, estradiol-treated monkeys, some areas of all three oviductal segments are well stimulated whereas others display little or no secretory activity.