Genetics, Molecular, and Proteomics Advances in Filamentous Fungi
Trichoderma harzianum is a mycoparasitic filamentous fungus that produces and secretes a wide range of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes used in cell wall degradation. Due to its potential in biomass conversion, T. harzianum draws great attention from biofuel and biocontrol industries and research. Here, we report an extensive secretome analysis of T. harzianum. The fungus was grown on cellulose medium, and its secretome was analyzed by a combination of enzymology, 2DE, MALDI-MS and -MS/MS (Autoflex II), and LC-MS/MS (LTQ-Orbitrap XL). A total of 56 proteins were identified using high-resolution MS. Interestingly, although cellulases were found, the major hydrolytic enzymes secreted in the cellulose medium were chitinases and endochitinases, which may reflect the biocontrol feature of T. harzianum. The glycoside hydrolase family, including chitinases (EC 18.104.22.168), endo-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 22.214.171.124), hexosaminidases (EC 126.96.36.199), galactosidases (EC 188.8.131.52), xylanases (EC 184.108.40.206), exo-1,3-glucanases (EC 220.127.116.11), endoglucanases (EC 18.104.22.168), xylosidases (EC 22.214.171.124), α-L-arabinofuranosidase (EC 126.96.36.199), N-acetylhexosaminidases (EC 188.8.131.52), and other enzymes represented 51.36% of the total secretome. Few representatives were classified in the protease family (8.90%). Others (17.60%) are mostly intracellular proteins. A considerable part of the secretome was composed of hypothetical proteins (22.14%), probably because of the absence of an annotated T. harzianum genome. The T. harzianum secretome composition highlights the importance of this fungus as a rich source of hydrolytic enzymes for bioconversion and biocontrol applications.