Based on current references four clinical scenarios were discussed and different management strategies were compared for secondary and primary prophylaxis of ulcer or peptic ulcer bleeding under continuous therapy with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) or low-dose-aspirin, for H.pylori-positive and H.pylori-negative patients. Used as secondary prophylaxis eradication alone is insufficient in preventing recurrent peptic ulcer or recurrent ulcer bleeding for H.pylori-positive patients who continue to take unselective NSAIDs. Maintenance therapy with PPIs or switching from nonselective NSAID to COX-2-inhibitors is required after eradication of H.pylori or primary H.pylori-negative patients. Further evaluation is needed of what kind of secondary prophylaxis - maintenance therapy with PPI or switching to COX-2-inhibitor - is more (cost-)effective. It is sufficient to use eradication of H.pylori alone as secondary prophylaxis in preventing recurrent peptic ulcer or recurrent ulcer bleeding for H.pylori-positive patients, who continue to take low-dose-aspirin. Maintenance therapy with PPI is not generally required. However it can be considered for patients with increased risk for gastrointestinal complications (previous history of peptic ulcer, age over 65 years, concomitant use of corticosteroids, anticoagulants or individual NSAID with higher risk for gastrointestinal complications, serious cardiovascular disease). Switching from low-dose-aspirin to clopidogrel is not required. Used as primary prophylaxis in preventing peptic ulcer or ulcer bleeding before starting long-term therapy with NSAIDs, COX-2-inhibitors or unselective NSAIDs concomitant with PPIs are recommended for patients with increased risk for gastrointestinal complications. Patients starting long-term therapy with unselective NSAIDs should be screened for H.pylori and eradicated. There are no valid data supporting screening for H.pylori and eradication for patients starting long-term therapy with low-dose-aspirin. Further studies are needed to evaluate a possible benefit for patients with increased risk for gastrointestinal complications.