Secondary Evolutionary Escalation Between Brachiopods and Enemies of Other Prey

@article{Kowalewski2005SecondaryEE,
  title={Secondary Evolutionary Escalation Between Brachiopods and Enemies of Other Prey},
  author={Michał Kowalewski and Alan P. Hoffmeister and Tomasz K. Baumiller and Richard K. Bambach},
  journal={Science},
  year={2005},
  volume={308},
  pages={1774 - 1777}
}
The fossil record of predation indicates that attacks on Paleozoic brachiopods were very rare, especially compared to those on post-Paleozoic mollusks, yet stratigraphically and geographically widespread. Drilling frequencies were very low in the early Paleozoic («1%) and went up slightly in the mid-to-late Paleozoic. Present-day brachiopods revealed frequencies only slightly higher. The persistent rarity of drilling suggests that brachiopods were the secondary casualties of mistaken or… 

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Traces of predation/parasitism recorded in Eocene brachiopods from the Castle Hayne Limestone, North Carolina, USA

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