Secondary Evolutionary Escalation Between Brachiopods and Enemies of Other Prey

  title={Secondary Evolutionary Escalation Between Brachiopods and Enemies of Other Prey},
  author={Michał Kowalewski and Alan P. Hoffmeister and Tomasz K. Baumiller and Richard K. Bambach},
  pages={1774 - 1777}
The fossil record of predation indicates that attacks on Paleozoic brachiopods were very rare, especially compared to those on post-Paleozoic mollusks, yet stratigraphically and geographically widespread. Drilling frequencies were very low in the early Paleozoic («1%) and went up slightly in the mid-to-late Paleozoic. Present-day brachiopods revealed frequencies only slightly higher. The persistent rarity of drilling suggests that brachiopods were the secondary casualties of mistaken or… 

Statistical Independence of Escalatory Ecological Trends in Phanerozoic Marine Invertebrates

There is no evidence that escalation drives macroecological trends at global and million-year time scales, and it is found that taxonomic richness and occurrence data are cross-correlated, which justifies the traditional use of one as a proxy of the other.

Ecological effects of the Paleozoic-Modern faunal transition: Comparing predation on Paleozoic brachiopods and molluscs

The shift from the Paleozoic to the Modern (post-Paleozoic) Fauna involved a major influx of benthic molluscs (gastropods and bivalves) into offshore marine environments, resulting in mixed


It is demonstrated that multiple invertebrate marine predators are willing and able to consume brachiopods in laboratory settings without observable negative effects after ingestion, suggesting that although brachiOPods may be unwanted prey in the presence of energetically more desirable targets, they do appear to be edible and subject to intense predator-prey interactions under certain conditions.

An asynchronous Mesozoic marine revolution: the Cenozoic intensification of predation on echinoids

The results suggest that predation intensification associated with the MMR was asynchronous across marine invertebrate taxa and represented a long and complex process that consisted of multiple uncoordinated steps probably with variable coevolutionary responses.

Strong coupling of predation intensity and diversity in the Phanerozoic fossil record

A species-level database of predation intensity, as measured by the frequency of common predation traces, suggests that macroevolutionary and macroecological patterns share common causative mechanisms that may reflect either historical processes or sampling artifacts.

Infaunal molting in Trilobita and escalatory responses against predation

An unusual molt pattern provides compelling evidence of infaunal behavior, which accounts for a hiding, antipredatory adaptation and an evolutionary trend toward morphological defensive strategies, providing unequivocal support for understanding the ecological role of trilobites as a main prey group in the context of the global diversification of predators recorded during middle Paleozoic time.

Attempted predation on Early Paleozoic cornulitids

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Evaluating neutrality and the escalation hypothesis in brachiopod communities from shallow, high-productivity habitats

The inability of models assuming ecological equivalence to produce the observed patterns in community structure implies that random assembly does not explain abundance patterns at patch scales, contradicting the idea that brachiopods are inferior competitors for space.

Traces of predation/parasitism recorded in Eocene brachiopods from the Castle Hayne Limestone, North Carolina, USA

Schimmel, M., Kowalewski, M. & Coffey, BP. 2011: Traces of predation/parasitism recorded in Eocene brachiopods from the Castle Hayne Limestone, North Carolina, USA. Lethaia, Vol. 45, pp. 274–289.



Predation in the Paleozoic: Gastropod-Like Drillholes in Devonian Brachiopods

Middle Devonian articulate brachiopods have external tapered holes with a central boss that are indistinguishable from drillholes of naticid gastropods that are known from the Triassic and later, indicating a level of predation that has been reported only from post-Paleozoic strata.

The Mesozoic Marine Revolution

The modern oceans teem with animals which kill others to live, from killer whales that form pods of several individuals in co-ordinated attacks on their quarry (Pitman et al., 2001) to the drilling

Drilling predation on Permian brachiopods and bivalves from the Glass Mountains, West Texas

Although bored invertebrates have been described from every period of the Paleozoic, little information on the frequency and nature of Late Paleozoic drill holes exists. Our examination of the

Testing Predator-Driven Evolution with Paleozoic Crinoid Arm Regeneration

Analysis of 11 Paleozoic crinoid Lagerstätten revealed a significant increase in arm regeneration during the Siluro-Devonian, which implies an important role for predator-driven evolution.

The mid-Paleozoic precursor to the Mesozoic marine revolution

The mid-Paleozoic radiation of durophages and response of the marine fauna was in many respects similar to events of the Mesozoic Marine Revolution, in effect, the Paleozoic precursor to that event.

Intense drilling in the Carboniferous brachiopod Cardiarina cordata Cooper, 1956

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The evolutionary history of drilling predation, despite a long and rich fossil record (Precambrian–Holocene), contains a 120 m.y. gap (Late Triassic–Early Cretaceous). Drilled bivalve and brachiopod