Second to fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) and adult sex hormone levels: New data and a meta-analytic review

  title={Second to fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) and adult sex hormone levels: New data and a meta-analytic review},
  author={Johannes H{\"o}nekopp and Luise Bartholdt and Lothar Beier and Andreas Liebert},

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Digit Ratio (2D:4D): A Biomarker for Prenatal Sex Steroids and Adult Sex Steroids in Challenge Situations
It is hypothesized that 2D:4D correlates with organizing effects on the endocrine system that moderate activating effects in adulthood, and is particularly evident in “challenging” conditions such as aggressive and sexual encounters, in which individuals show increased levels of T.
Second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is unrelated to measures of somatic reproductive effort among young men from Cebu, the Philippines.
Test the hypothesis that the association of low 2D:4D ratios with increased muscularity and decreased adiposity depends on current testosterone (T) levels, such that digit ratio will be a particularly strong predictor of outcomes among men exhibiting a mating-effort-oriented endocrine profile (high T).
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and handgrip strength in subjects of Han ethnicity: impact of sex and age.
There was a sex-specific correlation between 2D:4D and handgrip strength, and this relationship may be driven by sexual selection operating on fetal programming.
No relationship between the digit ratios (2D:4D) and salivary testosterone change: Study on men under an acute exercise
It is found that the digit ratios were neither predictors of pre-exercise testosterone, nor the change in testosterone level after a cycling task, which adds a contradictory to previous studies evidence.
Does second‐to‐fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D) predict age at menarche in women?
  • S. Helle
  • Biology
    American journal of human biology : the official journal of the Human Biology Council
  • 2010
It is found that neither the 2D:4D of the right nor the left hand were related to a woman's age at menarche among these Finnish women, and there is no evidence that the ratio of second‐to‐fourth digit length in the right or left hand is related to the age of a woman.
Digit ratio (2D:4D) as an indicator of body size, testosterone concentration and number of children in human males
It is shown, for the first time in a single population, that digit ratio is related to sub-adult body size at different stages of the life course, adult testosterone levels and number of children.
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH): Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis
A systematic review of 2D:4D in people with congenital adrenal hyperplasia found no evidence to suggest the right-left difference in 2D:[R-L]) is associated with prenatal sex hormone exposure, and the effect size had reduced by 46.70%.
Digit length ratio (2D:4D) and variation in key life-history traits and fitness in contemporary Finnish women
D:4D is found to have no association with several life-history traits and fitness in postreproductive Finnish women, casting doubts to the claim that 2D: 4D predicts female life histories and evolutionary fitness in humans.


2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D) and number of sex partners: Evidence for effects of prenatal testosterone in men
The second to fourth digit ratio and asymmetry
The data show that both low 2D:4D and high 2D :4D are associated with elevated levels of asymmetry and this relationship applies particularly to finger asymmetry.
Second to fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) and testosterone in men.
Adult levels of testosterone may be related to aspects of 2D:4D in samples which contain men with compromised testicular function, but not in men from normative samples.
2nd to 4th digit ratios, fetal testosterone and estradiol.
The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length: a predictor of sperm numbers and concentrations of testosterone, luteinizing hormone and oestrogen.
It is shown that 2D:4D in right and left hands has a sexually dimorphic pattern and is probably established in utero, which raises the possibility that patterns of digit formation may relate to spermatogenesis and hormonal concentrations.