Second‐order cybernetics: an historical introduction

  title={Second‐order cybernetics: an historical introduction},
  author={B. C. E. Scott},
  • B. Scott
  • Published 1 October 2004
  • Computer Science, Art
  • Kybernetes
In 1974, Heinz von Foerster articulated the distinction between a first‐ and second‐order cybernetics, as, respectively, the cybernetics of observed systems and the cybernetics of observing systems. Von Foerster's distinction, together with his own work on the epistemology of the observer, has been enormously influential on the work of a later generation of cyberneticians. It has provided an architecture for the discipline of cybernetics, one that, in true cybernetic spirit, provides order… 

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