Seasonal affective disorder and latitude: a review of the literature.

  title={Seasonal affective disorder and latitude: a review of the literature.},
  author={Peter Paul A. Mersch and Hermine M Middendorp and Antoinette L. Bouhuys and Domien G. M. Beersma and Rutger H. van den Hoofdakker},
  journal={Journal of affective disorders},
  volume={53 1},

The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude

The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland was particularly high in northern municipalities, and the incidence of SAD varied between a southern municipality and three northern municipalities.

Seasonal affective disorder and latitude of living

The hypothesis that SAD is linked to amount of environmental light and latitude of living was not supported and the prevalence of Autumn SAD was not significantly different between the two countries.

An overview of epidemiological studies on seasonal affective disorder

  • A. Magnússon
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica
  • 2000
The actuality of seasonal variation in mood has been documented thoroughly by both retrospective and prospective studies, and the most extreme form of this disposition, SAD appears to be a relatively common disorder.

What is this thing called “SAD”? A critique of the concept of seasonal affective disorder

Large population studies from northern Norway do not point to a higher prevalence of depression in winter than expected in any other general population, and the diagnosis of SAD based on SPAQ bears little relationship to a meaningful concept of depression.

Light therapy and the management of winter depression

The diagnosis and presentation of recurrent winter depression are discussed and symptoms are contrasted with those of non- seasonal depression, and general aspects of the management of seasonal affective disorder, including the use of antidepressant medication, are outlined.

Seasonality in affective disorders using SPAQ

Low prevalence of SAD in the present study could be due to the different method of assessment used in the study (assessment lasting for the whole year, direct interview method), it may also be speculated that season of changes are not related to underlying processes or consequent to the development of affective disorders.

An Overview of Seasonal Affective Disorder and its Treatment Options

  • R. Howland
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The Physician and sportsmedicine
  • 2009
Light therapy and antidepressant medication are effective treatment options, with limited evidence for the efficacy of psychotherapy, and some studies demonstrate that narrow-band short wavelength “blue” light, naturalistic dawn simulation, and high-density negative air ionization are effective.

Major Depression With Seasonal Variation

Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is based on the theory that some depressions occur seasonally in response to reduced sunlight. SAD has attracted cultural and research attention for more than 30



The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in The Netherlands

Tentative conclusions are that the prevalence rates in Europe are considerably lower than in the USA, but that there is a similar trend in the direction of an increase of prevalence at higher latitudes.

Seasonality of mood in Italy: role of latitude and sociocultural factors.

Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in Alaska.

This study supports the conclusions that seasonal affective disorder is prevalent in northern populations and that sex and age may represent the major risk factors that differentiate it from the general experience of depression in northern communities.

Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder at four latitudes

Seasonal affective disorder among psychiatric nurses in Aberdeen.

Prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in Iceland.

The prevalence of SAD and S-SAD was lower in Iceland than on the East Coast of the United States, in spite of Iceland's more northern latitude, which is unexpected since the prevalence of these disorders has been found to increase in more northern latitudes.

The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder is low among descendants of Icelandic emigrants in Canada.

The results indicate that the relationship between prevalence of these disorders and geographic latitude is more complex than has previously been suggested; genetic adaptation in Icelandic populations may play an important role.

Rates of seasonal affective disorder in children and adolescents.

These pilot data suggest that between 1.7% and 5.5% of 9-19-year-old children may have seasonal affective disorder, and the rate was higher in postpubertal girls.