Seasonal affective disorder and latitude: a review of the literature.

@article{Mersch1999SeasonalAD,
  title={Seasonal affective disorder and latitude: a review of the literature.},
  author={P. Mersch and H. Middendorp and A. Bouhuys and D. Beersma and R. H. van den Hoofdakker},
  journal={Journal of affective disorders},
  year={1999},
  volume={53 1},
  pages={
          35-48
        }
}
BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of SAD and latitude. METHODS An overview of the epidemiological literature on the prevalence of SAD is given and studies relevant for the latitudinal dependency of prevalence will be analyzed and discussed. RESULTS The mean prevalence of SAD is two times higher in North America compared to Europe. Over all prevalence studies, the correlation between prevalence and latitude was not significant. A… Expand
The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) in Greenland is related to latitude
TLDR
The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in Greenlanders and Danes living at four different latitudes in Greenland was particularly high in northern municipalities, and the incidence of SAD varied between a southern municipality and three northern municipalities. Expand
The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in the netherlands: a prospective and retrospective study of seasonal mood variation in the general population
TLDR
SAD subjects were significantly more often unemployed or on sick leave than other subjects, in both winter and summer, and responded to winter SAD criteria significantly more depressed than healthy subjects. Expand
Seasonal affective disorder and latitude of living
TLDR
The hypothesis that SAD is linked to amount of environmental light and latitude of living was not supported and the prevalence of Autumn SAD was not significantly different between the two countries. Expand
An overview of epidemiological studies on seasonal affective disorder
  • A. Magnússon
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica
  • 2000
TLDR
The actuality of seasonal variation in mood has been documented thoroughly by both retrospective and prospective studies, and the most extreme form of this disposition, SAD appears to be a relatively common disorder. Expand
Seasonal vegetative and affective symptoms in the Finnish general population: Testing the dual vulnerability and latitude effect hypotheses
TLDR
A seasonal pattern in mood and behaviors was detected in the Finnish general population over 30 years, and differences, if any, between the northern and southern regions of residence were found. Expand
What is this thing called “SAD”? A critique of the concept of seasonal affective disorder
TLDR
Large population studies from northern Norway do not point to a higher prevalence of depression in winter than expected in any other general population, and the diagnosis of SAD based on SPAQ bears little relationship to a meaningful concept of depression. Expand
Seasonal affective disorder in eight groups in Turkey: a cross-national perspective.
TLDR
No correlation was found between latitude and prevalence of winter SAD, which could be related to the sampling methodology or to the fact that there were only 5 degrees of difference between the latitudes. Expand
Light therapy and the management of winter depression
TLDR
The diagnosis and presentation of recurrent winter depression are discussed and symptoms are contrasted with those of non- seasonal depression, and general aspects of the management of seasonal affective disorder, including the use of antidepressant medication, are outlined. Expand
Seasonality in affective disorders using SPAQ
TLDR
Low prevalence of SAD in the present study could be due to the different method of assessment used in the study (assessment lasting for the whole year, direct interview method), it may also be speculated that season of changes are not related to underlying processes or consequent to the development of affective disorders. Expand
Ethnic differences in seasonal affective disorder and associated factors among five immigrant groups in Norway.
TLDR
There is a need for culturally validated instruments and further research must focus on exploring protective factors for SAD, which was significantly associated with country of birth, smoking and higher levels of alcohol consumption. Expand
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TLDR
Tentative conclusions are that the prevalence rates in Europe are considerably lower than in the USA, but that there is a similar trend in the direction of an increase of prevalence at higher latitudes. Expand
The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder in the netherlands: a prospective and retrospective study of seasonal mood variation in the general population
TLDR
SAD subjects were significantly more often unemployed or on sick leave than other subjects, in both winter and summer, and responded to winter SAD criteria significantly more depressed than healthy subjects. Expand
Seasonality of mood in Italy: role of latitude and sociocultural factors.
TLDR
Female sex and young age were associated with a higher degree of seasonal sensitivity and no clear evidence was found of higher sensitivity at higher latitudes or of a significant influence of sociocultural factors. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
The prevalence of SAD and S-SAD was lower in Iceland than on the East Coast of the United States, in spite of Iceland's more northern latitude, which is unexpected since the prevalence of these disorders has been found to increase in more northern latitudes. Expand
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Abstract Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) is a recently-defined variant of recurrent major depression which is understood as having a uniquely biological aetiology. Notwithstanding the appealingExpand
The prevalence of seasonal affective disorder is low among descendants of Icelandic emigrants in Canada.
TLDR
The results indicate that the relationship between prevalence of these disorders and geographic latitude is more complex than has previously been suggested; genetic adaptation in Icelandic populations may play an important role. Expand
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