Searching for faces in scrambled scenes

  title={Searching for faces in scrambled scenes},
  author={Michael B. Lewis and Andrew J. Edmonds},
  journal={Visual Cognition},
  pages={1309 - 1336}
While much is known about how faces are recognized, little is known about how a face is first detected. Five face-detection experiments investigated how faces are localized and detected among either scrambled natural backgrounds or inverted faces. The first two experiments revealed that faces pop out among the former but must be searched for serially among the latter. Two subsequent experiments investigated what properties of a face allow for this pop-out. Colour removal or reversal, blurring… 

The role of view in human face detection

Face detection differs from categorization: Evidence from visual search in natural scenes

The results demonstrate that the categorization of faces at fixation is dissociable from the detection of faces in space, and suggest that face detection should be studied with extended visual displays, such as natural scenes.

Face detection in normal and prosopagnosic individuals.

On almost all measures both normal and prosopagnosic individuals showed strong inversion effects with significantly worse performance with inverted faces, showing that the simple task of detection can show inverted effects comparable to those seen for other face tasks, including recognition.

The Role of Color in Human Face Detection

It is demonstrated that detection performance declines when color information is removed from faces, regardless of whether the surrounding scene context is rendered in color, which is consistent with color-template approaches used in some computer-based face detection systems.

The visual processing of human faces and bodies as visual stimuli in natural scenes

How faces are recognized and detected has been the focus of an extensive corpus of research. As such, it is now well established that human faces can be detected rapidly in a visual scene and that

Face Detection in Complex Natural Scenes

Face detection is an important preliminary process for all other tasks with faces, such as expression analysis and person identification. It is also known to be rapid and automatic, which indicates

Visual search efficiency is greater for human faces compared to animal faces.

fixations on human faces were faster and more accurate than fixations on primate faces, even when controlling for search category specificity, suggesting some bottom-up processing may be responsible for the human face search efficiency advantage.



Face Detection in Peripheral Vision: Do Faces Pop Out?

It is concluded that there is no direct rapid ‘pop-out’ effect for faces, however, the findings demonstrate that, in peripheral vision, upright faces show a processing advantage over inverted faces.

The face-detection effect

We found that briefly flashed pictures of a face were detected more accurately than was a control pattern with a nose, a mouth, and a pair of eyes positioned arbitrarily so that they did not form a

Upside-down faces: a review of the effect of inversion upon face recognition.

It is concluded that the evidence that inverted faces are processed differently from upright faces is far from compelling, and therefore the effect of inversion provides little or no evidence of a unique process in face recognition.

From Pixels to People: A Model of Familiar Face Recognition

This paper presents a model of human face recognition which combines both a perceptual and a cognitive component, and demonstrates that this model has a much wider predictive range than either perceptual or cognitive models alone.

Robust representations for faces: evidence from visual search.

  • F. TongK. Nakayama
  • Psychology
    Journal of experimental psychology. Human perception and performance
  • 1999
Evidence from visual search suggests that robust representations for a highly overlearned face may mediate rapid asymptotic visual processing, require extensive experience to develop, contain abstract or view-invariant information, facilitate a variety of processes such as target recognition and distractor rejection, and demand less attentional resources.

Recognition of faces in photographic negative

Recognition of faces from still photographs was measured asa function of whether the faces were presented in positive or in negative during the initial viewing and subsequent recognition procedures.

Sensitivity to the Displacement of Facial Features in Negative and Inverted Images

Experiments were reported in which a two-alternative forced-choice technique was used to measure sensitivity for distinguishing faces which have been modified by having the eyes moved vertically or horizontally, which suggests that a facial surround is necessary.

Faces and Facial Expressions do not Pop Out

In most tests, reaction time was found to increase steeply with sample size, thus indicating serial-search characteristics for the patterns tested, and there were considerable differences in the slopes of the graphs (search time versus sample size), which could be attributed to visual cues that are discriminated at similar speeds.

Perception and Recognition of Normal and Negative Faces: The Role of Shape from Shading and Pigmentation Cues

The results of three experiments suggest that although changes to the apparent pigmentation of a face might result in identification errors in some situations, the loss of shape-from-shading cues is a more important cause of the negation effect.

Parts and Wholes in Face Recognition

  • J. TanakaM. Farah
  • Psychology
    The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. A, Human experimental psychology
  • 1993
The hypothesis that face recognition is holistic predicts that a part of a face will be disproportionately more easily recognized in the whole face than as an isolated part, relative to recognition of the parts and wholes of other kinds of stimuli.