Searching for Signatures of Brain Maturity: What Are We Searching For?

@article{Somerville2016SearchingFS,
  title={Searching for Signatures of Brain Maturity: What Are We Searching For?},
  author={Leah H. Somerville},
  journal={Neuron},
  year={2016},
  volume={92},
  pages={1164-1167}
}

Figures from this paper

Neural activity patterns between different executive tasks are more similar in adulthood than in adolescence

TLDR
Age-related differences in the neural correlates of different executive functions were tracked by comparing three age groups consisting of adolescents and young adults to study neural maturation and cognitive development in adolescence.

Healthy Development as a Human Right: Insights from Developmental Neuroscience for Youth Justice

Healthy development is a fundamental right of the individual, regardless of race, ethnicity, or social class. Youth require special protections of their rights, in part owing to vulnerabilities rel...

Conclusion: The Brain at Risk

TLDR
Emphasis throughout each chapter is on a summation of the latest research on some of the most common major neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric disorders, highlighting the current understanding of each disease or disorder.

Development of corticostriatal connectivity constrains goal-directed behavior during adolescence

TLDR
It is shown that adolescents do not adjust their cognitive effort according to value, and that this ability is mediated by connectivity between the striatum and prefrontal cortex, and it is proposed that late development of corticostriatal connectivity sets the stage for optimal goal-directed behavior.

Studying individual differences in human adolescent brain development

TLDR
This Perspective considers three sources of variation that contribute to neurocognitive processing: socioeconomic status, culture and peer environment, and proposes that the field should now move toward studying individual differences.

Why monkeys do not get multiple sclerosis (spontaneously)

  • R. Bove
  • Biology, Psychology
    Evolution, medicine, and public health
  • 2018
TLDR
This review will highlight under-explored areas of homeostasis in brain development, that are likely to shed new light on the origins of MS and to raise further questions about the interactions between the authors' ancestral genes and modern environments.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 15 REFERENCES

Is “efficiency” a useful concept in cognitive neuroscience?

  • R. Poldrack
  • Biology, Psychology
    Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
  • 2015

Should the science of adolescent brain development inform public policy?

TLDR
It is argued that a good deal is known about adolescent brain development, that this knowledge has in fact been useful in shaping the authors' understanding of adolescent behavior, and that neuroscience, like behavioral science, can usefully inform policy discussions.

Beyond simple models of adolescence to an integrated circuit-based account: A commentary

Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study

TLDR
This large-scale longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging study confirmed linear increases in white matter, but demonstrated nonlinear changes in cortical gray matter, with a preadolescent increase followed by a postadolescent decrease.

Prediction of Individual Brain Maturity Using fMRI

TLDR
Support vector machine-based multivariate pattern analysis extracts sufficient information from fcMRI data to make accurate predictions about individuals’ brain maturity across development, and prediction of individual brain maturity as a functional connectivity maturation index is allowed.

When Is an Adolescent an Adult? Assessing Cognitive Control in Emotional and Nonemotional Contexts

TLDR
The results showed diminished cognitive performance under brief and prolonged negative emotional arousal in 18- to 21-year-olds relative to adults over 21, and suggest a developmental shift in cognitive capacity in emotional situations that coincides with dynamic changes in prefrontal circuitry.

Frontostriatal Maturation Predicts Cognitive Control Failure to Appetitive Cues in Adolescents

TLDR
These findings implicate exaggerated ventral striatal representation of appetitive cues in adolescents relative to an intermediary cognitive control response as one possible mechanism underlying heightened risk-taking during adolescence.

Heterogeneity in Subcortical Brain Development: A Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain Maturation from 8 to 30 Years

TLDR
In addition to similarities in developmental trajectories within subcortical regions, the results point to differences between structures within the same regions: among the basal ganglia, the caudate showed a weaker relationship with age than the putamen and pallidum, and in the cerebellum, differences were found between GM and WM development.

Adolescent development and juvenile justice.

  • L. Steinberg
  • Psychology
    Annual review of clinical psychology
  • 2009
TLDR
The lessons of developmental science offer strong support for the maintenance of a separate juvenile justice system in which adolescents are judged, tried, and sanctioned in developmentally appropriate ways.

Functional Brain Networks Develop from a “Local to Distributed” Organization

TLDR
Over development, the organization of multiple functional networks shifts from a local anatomical emphasis in children to a more “distributed” architecture in young adults, and it is argued that this “local to distributed” developmental characterization has important implications for understanding the development of neural systems underlying cognition.