Sea urchin mass mortality rapidly restores kelp forest communities

@article{Williams2021SeaUM,
  title={Sea urchin mass mortality rapidly restores kelp forest communities},
  author={Jp Williams and JT Claisse and DJ Pondella II and Cm Williams and MJ Robart and Zoe M. Scholz and EM Jaco and Tom Ford and Heather Burdick and David A. Witting},
  journal={Marine Ecology Progress Series},
  year={2021},
  volume={664},
  pages={117-131}
}
Giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera is a foundational species that forms a 3-dimensional habitat and supports numerous high-value fisheries species. Constant grazing of kelp holdfasts by overabundant sea urchins causes catastrophic ecological and economic impacts on rocky reefs worldwide. Overgrazing creates urchin barrens that persist for decades in the absence of ecological forcing that would shift the ecosystem back to a kelp-dominated state. Annual surveys of kelp forest and urchin barren sites… 

Feeding Preference of the Sea Urchin Arbacia punctulata for Algal Turf Over Kelp in a Degraded Kelp Forest Ecosystem

Increasingly severe ocean warming and marine heatwave events are driving declines in habitat-forming kelps worldwide. Direct mortality from extreme temperatures, coupled with destabilization of kelp

Sea Urchin Removal as a Tool for Macroalgal Restoration: A Review on Removing “the Spiny Enemies”

Kelp and macroalgal forests provide the ecological foundations of many temperate rocky reef ecosystems, but have regionally declined, often due to sea urchin overgrazing and the formation of urchin

Recurrent large‐scale sea urchin mass mortality and the establishment of a long‐lasting alternative macroalgae‐dominated community state

Relationships between sea urchins and noncrustose macroalgae are typically nonlinear, and an abrupt phase shift from a barren to a macroalgae‐dominated state and vice versa happens when the sea

Impact of the extinct megaherbivore Steller’s sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) on kelp forest resilience

Giant kelp forests off the west coast of North America are maintained primarily by sea otter (Enhydra lutris) and sunflower sea star (Pycnopodia helianthoides) predation of sea urchins. Human hunting

Global kelp forest restoration: past lessons, present status, and future directions

Kelp forest ecosystems and their associated ecosystem services are declining around the world. In response, marine managers are working to restore and counteract these declines. Kelp restoration

Macroalgae and interspecific alarm cues regulate behavioral interactions between sea urchins and sea cucumbers

Sea urchins and sea cucumbers are mutually beneficial organisms in kelp ecosystem. As herbivores, sea urchins process kelp through feeding and egestion, providing inaccessible food for benthic

Rebirth of a reef: As-built description and rapid returns from the Palos Verdes Reef Restoration Project

Palos Verdes Reef (PVR) is an artificial reef designed to restore rocky-reef associated marine species by directly restoring rocky-reef habitat that has been impacted by scour, sedimentation, and

How far to build it before they come? Analyzing the use of the Field of Dreams hypothesis to bull kelp restoration

It is found that, for the case of bull kelp forests, setting more favorable initial conditions for kelp recovery through implementing both urchin harvesting and kelp outplanting at the start of the restoration project has a bigger impact on the kelp recovered rate than applying restoration efforts through a longer period of time.