Sea Otters and Kelp Forests in Alaska: Generality and Variation in a Community Ecological Paradigm

@article{Estes1995SeaOA,
  title={Sea Otters and Kelp Forests in Alaska: Generality and Variation in a Community Ecological Paradigm},
  author={J. Estes and D. O. Duggins},
  journal={Ecological Monographs},
  year={1995},
  volume={65},
  pages={75-100}
}
Multiscale patterns of spatial and temporal variation in density and popu- lation structure were used to evaluate the generality of a three-trophic-level cascade among sea otters (Enhydra lutris), invertebrate herbivores, and macroalgae in Alaska. The paradigm holds that where sea otters occur herbivores are rare and plants are abundant, whereas when sea otters are absent herbivores are relatively common and plants are rare. Spatial patterns were based on 20 randomly placed quadrats at 153… Expand
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