About 20% of uranyl ions in serum are associated with the protein pool. A few of them such as transferrin have been characterized, but most still have to be identified to obtain a better explanation of the biochemical toxicology and kinetics of uranium. We designed an in vitro sensitive procedure involving a combination of bidimensional chromatography with time-resolved fluorescence, coupled with proteomic analysis, to identify uranium-binding proteins in human serum fractions. Ten novel targets were identified and validated using purified proteins and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Of these, ceruloplasmin, hemopexin, and two complement proteins displayed the capacity to bind uranium with stoichiometry greater than 1 mole of uranium per mole of protein. Not all of these targets are metalloproteins, suggesting that uranyl ions can use a wide variety of binding sites and coordination strategies. These data provide additional insights into a better understanding of uranium chemical toxicity.