Characterization of blond and Star Ruby (red) Jaffa grapefruits using antioxidant and electrophoretic methods
Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been implicated in atherogenesis. Antioxidants that prevent LDL from oxidizing may reduce atherosclerosis. This study investigated LDL antioxidant activity in edible plant products for development of dietary supplementation to prevent atherosclerosis. Fifty-two kinds of edible plants were extracted using 70% aqueous ethanol solution, and the antioxidant activity of the extracts, which inhibit human LDL oxidation induced by copper ion, was determined on the basis of the oxidation lag time and represented as epigallocatechin 3-gallate equivalent. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content were also measured for comparisons with antioxidant activity in LDL. Plant products showing the greatest activity in LDL oxidation assay were akamegashiwa (Mallotus japonicus) leaf, Japanese privet (Ligustrum japonicum) leaf, green tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze], and astringent persimmon (Diospyros kaki). The present study revealed high levels of LDL antioxidant activity in plant products for which such activity levels are underestimated in the DPPH radical scavenging assay and Folin-Ciocalteu assay.